THE DIVISION OF PERFUMERY

NOTE.—There is considerable confusion, in works on perfumery, regarding
the terms _essence_ and _extract_. In French works, _essence_ always
means “essential oil.” Thus “essence de rose” is “essential oil of
roses,” or “attar (otto) of roses.” _Extrait_ (French) is used of
alcoholic solutions of oils, as well as alcoholic extracts of pomades,
or of substances not wholly soluble in alcohol, and also of compound
liquids. In English, _essence_ is used, and should be confined to
alcoholic solutions of essential oils (“essence of lemon,” “essence
of peppermint”). It is, then, equivalent to the term “spirit,”
which is also used only of alcoholic solutions of essential oils or
other volatile substance (such as: spirit of peppermint, essence
of peppermint; spirit of camphor, etc.). Liquid alcoholic extracts
of substances not wholly soluble in alcohol are properly called
_tinctures_ (for instance, tincture of benzoin, tincture of musk); and
liquid alcoholic extracts of pomades, or compound odorous liquids, are
best comprised under the general term _extracts_.

We shall employ the terms _essence_, _extract_, and _tincture_ in the
sense here explained.

EXTRACT OF CASSIE (EXTRAIT DE CASSIE).

Cassie pomade 6 lbs.
Alcohol 5 qts.

Extract of cassie has a fine green color—a fact which is not desirable
in perfumes intended for the handkerchief because colored preparations
leave stains. However, extract of cassie is rarely used pure, but is
generally mixed with other odors for handkerchief perfumes, whereby the
color is so much diluted that it may be disregarded. This extract—and
the same remark applies to all the others—immediately after its
preparation must be put into tightly closed vessels and preserved in
the coolest attainable dark place; for light, air, and heat must be
called the destroyers of perfumes, since the most delightful odors
eventually disappear under their influence.

For the benefit of manufacturers who import this extract from Southern
France, the main source of supply, we may add that the word cassie or
extrait de cassie, derived from the flowers of Acacia farnesiana, might
readily give rise to confusion with extrait de cassia, made from the
bark of the cinnamon cassia.

TINCTURE OF AMBERGRIS (EXTRAIT D’AMBREGRIS).

Ambergris 5 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The ambergris should be broken into small pieces with a chopping knife
repeatedly moistened with alcohol, and allowed to digest in the alcohol
for some weeks at a temperature of about 30° C. (86° F.).

TINCTURE OF BENZOIN (EXTRAIT DE BENJOIN).

Benzoin 10 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This tincture is not so much used for handkerchief perfumes as for
preserving many pomades, as it possesses the valuable property of
preventing fats from becoming rancid.

ESSENCE OF BERGAMOT (EXTRAIT DE BERGAMOTTE).

Oil of bergamot 8 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

TINCTURE OF CASTOR (EXTRAIT DE CASTOREUM).

Castor 2½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

TINCTURE OF MUSK SEED (EXTRAIT D’AMBRETTE).

Musk seed, powdered 1 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF BITTER ALMOND (EXTRAIT D’AMANDE).

Oil of bitter almond 1¾ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF CALAMUS (EXTRAIT DE GLAÏEUL).

Oil of calamus 1¾ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This essence has a pleasant odor, but it is not valued as a true
perfume; though if it is mixed with other essences or extracts until
its characteristic odor is no longer recognizable it furnishes a very
useful basis for many cheap articles.

ESSENCE OF CEDAR (EXTRAIT DE CÈDRE).

Oil of cedar wood ½ lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This essence made from the oil is colorless and can be used immediately
for handkerchief perfumes.

TINCTURE OF CEDAR (EXTRAIT DE BOIS DE CÈDRE).

This is made by digesting finely rasped cedar wood with strong alcohol,
namely:

Cedar wood chips 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The result is a fragrant tincture with a beautiful deep red color which
cannot be employed for handkerchief perfumes, but for many cosmetic
preparations such as mouth washes and for scenting soap.

ESSENCE OF CITRONELLA.

Extrait de citronella 3 to 3½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF LEMON GRASS (EXTRAIT DE SCHOENANTHE).

Oil of lemon grass 2 to 3 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF LILAC (EXTRAIT DE LILAS).

The genuine is seldom made; the preparation sold under this name
consists of:

Oil of bitter almond 15 grains.
Extract of orange flowers, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 3 qts.
Tincture of civet ¼ pint.

Of late, extract of lilac is often prepared by means of lilacin or
terpineol, as follows:

Lilacin 1 oz.
Alcohol 1 pint.

EXTRACT OF HONEYSUCKLE (EXTRAIT DE CHÈVRE-FEUILLE).

The author has made this extract by treating the pomade prepared from
the flowers of Lonicera Caprifolium, in the following proportion:

Honeysuckle pomade 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The commercial extract of this name is always a compound which may be
prepared according to the following formula:

Extract of rose, made from the pomade 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of violet, from pomade 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla ½ pint.
Tincture of Tolu ½ pint.
Oil of bitter almond 15 grains.
Oil of neroli 8 grains.

ESSENCE OF GERANIUM.

Oil of geranium (rose-geranium) 5½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

In the commercial article the essence of lemon grass is often
substituted for the essence of geranium, the odor being similar, though
less delicate.

EXTRACT OF CUCUMBER (EXTRAIT DE CONCOMBRES).

Cucumbers 8 lbs.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The cucumbers are peeled, cut into thin slices, and macerated in the
warm alcohol. If the odor is not strong enough in the alcohol after
some days, it is poured over some more fresh slices, the macerated
residue is expressed, and at the end of the operation all the liquids
are united and filtered.

EXTRACT OF HELIOTROPE (EXTRAIT DE HÉLIOTROPE).

Heliotrope pomade 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This has thus far been manufactured only by French perfumers at very
high prices; the great majority of the so-called extracts of heliotrope
are compounded from:

Extract of rose, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of orange flowers, from pomade 14 oz.
Tincture of ambergris 7 oz.
Tincture of vanilla 4 qts.
Oil of bitter almond 75 grains.

This is used as a perfume as such.

More recently, piperonal, under the name heliotropin, is used for
making this extract—

Heliotropin ¼ oz.
Alcohol 1 Pint.

It is necessary to blend this with various other aromatics in order to
cover the pronounced odor. A little cumarin is usually of great help.
But is it impossible, as yet, to give reliable proportions which would
suit all cases.

EXTRACT OF JASMINE (EXTRAIT DE JASMIN).

Jasmine pomade 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF LAVENDER (EXTRAIT DE LAVANDE).

Oil of lavender 7 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

A far superior essence may be prepared by the distillation of:

Oil of lavender 7 oz.
Rose water 2 qts.
Alcohol 10 qts.

The distillation is continued until one-half of the entire liquid has
passed over; the residue in the still furnishes an essence of lavender
of the second quality.

EXTRACT OF WALLFLOWER (EXTRAIT DE GIROFLÉ).

The genuine odor can be made only from the pomade; the commercial
extract consists of:

Extract of cassie, from pomade 1 pint.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla. 1 pint.
Tincture of orris root 1 pint.
Oil of bitter almond 1 pint.

EXTRACT OF LILY (EXTRAIT DE LYS).

As to this delightful odor the remark made under the preceding head
applies likewise; artificial extract of lily consists of:

Extract of cassie, from pomade 3 pints.
Extract of jasmine, from pomade 13½ fl. oz.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 27 fl. oz.
Extract of rose, from pomade 3 pints.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 3 qts.
Tincture of vanilla 40½ fl. oz.
Oil of bitter almond 30 grains.

ESSENCE OF LEMON (EXTRAIT DE LIMON).

Oil of lemon 7 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF MAGNOLIA (EXTRAIT DE MAGNOLIA).

This favorite perfume is a mixture of:

Extract of orange flower, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of rose, from pomade 4 qts.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of violet, from pomade 1 qt.
Oil of bitter almond 40 grains.
Oil of lemon 16 grains.

ESSENCE OF PEPPERMINT (EXTRAIT DE MENTHE).

Oil of peppermint 6½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

TINCTURE OF MUSK (EXTRAIT DE MUSC).

Musk 2½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This tincture is of special importance, not so much because of its odor
as on account of its useful property of fixing other very volatile
odors.

EXTRACT OF MYRTLE (EXTRAIT DE MYRTE).

Owing to the small yield of essential oil furnished on distillation
by the myrtle and the comparatively high price of the oil of myrtle,
nearly all the extract of myrtle is prepared artificially, as follows:

Extract of jasmine, from pomade ½ pint.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of rose, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla 1 qt.

EXTRACT OF NARCISSUS.

In perfumery, two extracts of narcissus are distinguished—true extract
of narcissus, from the flowers of the garden plant, Narcissus poeticus,
and the so-called extract of jonquille, from Narcissus Jonquilla,
which is cultivated in Southern France and whose odor is obtained by
maceration. Genuine extract of narcissus is even more rarely obtainable
than extract of jonquille; the odors of both are imitated, mainly
according to the following prescriptions:

1. EXTRACT OF NARCISSUS (EXTRAIT DE NARCISSE).

Extract of jonquille, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 3 qts.
Tincture of storax ½ pint.
Tincture of tolu ½ pint.

2. EXTRACT OF JONQUILLE (EXTRAIT DE JONQUILLE).

Extract of jasmine, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 2 qts.
Tincture of vanilla ½ pint.

ESSENCE OF CLOVE (EXTRAIT DE CLOUS DE GIROFLES).

Oil of clove 4½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF PINK (EXTRAIT D’ŒILLET).

This pleasant odor occurs in commerce only as an imitation.

Extract of cassie, from pomade 2½ pints.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 2½ pints.
Extract of rose, from pomade 5 pints.
Tincture of vanilla 20 fl. oz.
Oil of clove, a sufficient quantity, about 75 grains.

The oil of clove which determines the characteristic odor of this
extract is dissolved in a little alcohol; of this solution enough is
gradually added to the mixture until the odor has become sufficiently
strong.

EXTRACT OF ORANGE FLOWER OR NEROLI (EXTRAIT DE FLEURS D’ORANGES,
EXTRAIT DE NÉROLI).

Orange-flower pomade 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

Or,

Oil neroli pétale 2½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The latter preparation is also called “essence of neroli.”

The extract prepared from the pomade furnishes this highly esteemed
odor of a delicacy never to be approached by that made with oil. The
alcoholic extract of the pomade perfumed with the flowers of Syringa
(Philadelphus coronarius) also occurs in commerce as extract of orange
flowers or neroli.

ESSENCE OF PATCHOULY (EXTRAIT DE PATCHOULI).

Oil of patchouly 1¼ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This pure essence of patchouly has not a very pleasant odor; that made
according to the following formula is far superior.

Oil of patchouly 1½ oz.
Oil of rose ⅜ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

TINCTURE OF BALSAM OF PERU (EXTRAIT DE PÉROU).

Peru balsam 10½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This tincture, though of a very pleasant odor, can be used only for
scenting soap or sachets, as it has a very dark brown color; by
distilling alcohol over Peru balsam a colorless extract is obtained,
though of a fainter odor.

ESSENCE OF ALLSPICE (EXTRAIT DE PIMENT).

Oil of allspice 3½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF SWEET PEA (EXTRAIT DE POIS DE SENTEUR).

This extract, made almost exclusively in Southern France by maceration
of the pomade, is but rarely met with in commerce; what passes under
this name is made as follows:

Extract of orange flower, from pomade 2½ pints.
Extract of rose, from pomade 2½ pints.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 2½ pints.
Tincture of vanilla 5¾ oz.

EXTRACT OF RESEDA (EXTRAIT DE MIGNONETTE).

Reseda pomade 5 to 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.
Tincture of tolu 5½ oz.

The addition of the tincture of tolu is necessary here, owing to the
extraordinary volatility of the delightful odor of mignonette, which is
lessened by the addition of tincture of tolu.

ESSENCE OR EXTRACT OF ROSE (EXTRAITS DE ROSE).

In commerce several sorts of essence or extract of rose are
distinguished; only the cheaper grades are made by direct solution of
the oil of rose in alcohol, the better grades are prepared only from
pomades. As the rose is the noblest of flowers, so are these odors the
most magnificent thus far produced by the art of perfumery, since they
are approached in delicacy and fragrance only by the genuine extracts
of orange flower and violet. The so-called rose waters (eaux de rose)
are best obtained by distillation of fresh or salted rose leaves with
water. The preceding formulæ will show that both extract of rose and
rose water form important constituents of many compound essences, hence
these materials require special attention. In the following pages
we enumerate only those formulæ which are acknowledged as the best
and furnish the finest product. As rose water likewise belongs among
the rose odors we give directions for its preparation, and observe
in passing that the precautions required in the manufacture of this
one apply also to all aromatic waters (eaux aromatisées). The first
essential to the production of a fine aromatic water is the employment
of the freshest possible flowers; when kept in stock, chemical changes
occur in the leaves which affect also the aromatic constituents and
lead to a deterioration of the fragrance. Hence we urgently recommend
to distil the freshly gathered flowers as soon as possible, even if the
quantity on hand be small. Should this not be feasible, it is advisable
to press the flowers immediately after gathering in stone-ware pots and
to pour over them a saturated solution of table salt. A concentrated
saline solution prevents decomposition by the abstraction of water; and
thus larger quantities of flowers may be gathered and distilled with
the salt solution. The majority of aromatic waters are prepared in this
way, for instance, rose, jasmine, lilac, and others. They enter less
into handkerchief perfumes than into various mouth and other washes,
and cosmetics in general.

ROSE WATER (EAU DE ROSE TRIPLE).

Rose leaves 4 lb.
Water 20 pints.

Mix them, and by means of steam, distil 10 pints.

The rose leaves are, of course, preferably to be used while fresh.
If they are to be preserved for future use, they should be packed in
stone-ware jars, and covered with a solution of common salt. This
is poured off before distillation, but used over again for the same
purpose.

EXTRACT OF ROSE (EXTRAIT DE ROSES TRIPLE).

Rose pomade 8 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF [OIL OF] ROSE (ESPRIT DE ROSES TRIPLE).

Oil of rose 3½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This essence is not so good as the extract.

EXTRACT OF CHINA ROSES (ESSENCE DE ROSES JAUNES).

Essence of rose (triple) 2 qts.
Tincture of tonka ½ pint.
Extract of tuberose 2 qts.
Extract of verbena ½ pint.

EXTRACT OF SWEET-BRIER (WILD ROSE) (EXTRAIT D’EGLANTINE).

Extract of cassie, from pomade 44 fl. oz.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 44 fl. oz.
Extract of rose, from pomade 2½ qts.
Essence of rose (triple) 44 fl. oz.
Oil of lemon grass ¼ oz.
Oil of neroli ¼ oz.

EXTRACT OF MOSS-ROSE (EXTRAIT DE ROSES MOUSSEUSES).

Extract of rose, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 1 qt.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Tincture of ambergris 1 pint.
Tincture of musk ½ lb.

EXTRACT OF TEA-ROSE (EXTRAIT DE ROSA THÉA).

Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of geranium, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade ½ pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Tincture of santal ½ pint.
Tincture of orris root ½ pint.

EXTRACT OF WHITE ROSE (ESSENCE DE ROSES BLANCHES).

Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of jasmine, from pomade 1 pint.
Extract of violet, from pomade 1 qt.
Essence of patchouly ½ pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.

EXTRACT OF TWIN-ROSES (ESSENCE DE ROSES JUMELLES).

Extract of rose, from pomade 5 qts.
Oil of rose 1¾ oz.

EXTRACT OF SANTAL (EXTRAIT DE SANTAL).

Tincture of santal 3½ oz.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 pint.
Alcohol 9 pints.

TINCTURE OF STORAX (ESSENCE DE STYRAX).

Storax 10½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

Though this tincture has a pleasant odor, it is not ordinarily used by
itself, but for fixing other odors.

TINCTURE OF TOLU (EXTRAIT DE BAUME DE TOLOU).

Tolu balsam 10½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The remark made under tincture of storax applies also to this.

TINCTURE OF TONKA (EXTRAIT DE TONKA).

Tonka beans, crushed 21 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF TUBEROSE (EXTRAIT DE TUBEROSE).

Tuberose pomade 8-10 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.
Tincture of storax 10 fl. oz.

TINCTURE OF VANILLA (EXTRAIT DE VANILLE).

Vanilla, sliced ½ lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF VIOLET (EXTRAIT DE VIOLETTE).

Violet pomade 6-7 lb.
Extract of cassie 6½ fl. oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This extract is very expensive; a good imitation is made as follows:

Extract of cassie, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 1 qt.
Tincture of orris root 1 qt.
Oil of bitter almond 15 grains.

TINCTURE OF ORRIS ROOT (EXTRAIT D’IRIS).

Orris root, powdered 6-7 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This tincture is sold as a very cheap violet perfume, but it has also
considerable value to perfumery in general, owing to its fixing power.

EXTRACT OF VERBENA (EXTRAIT DE VERVEINE).

True oil of verbena is rather expensive. Hence artificial compositions
are employed under the name of verbena which resemble the true odor,
though not exactly like it.

EXTRACT OF VERBENA A.

Oil of lemon grass 75 grains.
Oil of lemon 14 oz.
Oil of orange peel 3½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This extract is cheap and is used immediately as a perfume. The
extract usually sold under the French name Extrait de verveine is more
expensive and far superior:

EXTRACT OF VERBENA B.

Extract of orange flower, from pomade 30 fl. oz.
Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade ⅓ oz.
Oil of citron zeste ½ oz.
Oil of lemon grass ¾ oz.
Oil of lemon peel 9 oz.
Oil of orange peel 4½ oz.
Alcohol 4⅔ pints.

As already explained, if hand-pressed oil of lemon (made by the écuelle
process) is available, then the “oil of citron zeste” (which is _this_
particular kind of oil) and the “oil of lemon” may be simply added
together; that is, 9½ oz. of oil of lemon are used.

EXTRACT OF VOLCAMERIA (EXTRAIT DE VOLCAMERIA).

This extract is no more derived from the fragrant blossom whose name
it bears than are those of the lily, pink, and others met with in
commerce. It is prepared according to the following formula:

Extract of jasmine, from pomade 1 pint.
Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of violet, from pomade 2 qts.
Tincture of musk. ½ pint.

ESSENCE OF VETIVER (EXTRAIT DE VÉTIVER).

Oil of vetiver 2½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

TINCTURE OF OLIBANUM (EXTRAIT D’OLIBAN, EXTRAIT D’ENCENS).

Olibanum 1 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF WINTERGREEN (EXTRAIT DE GAULTHÉRIE).

This essence is more commonly sold under the English than the French
name. Its composition is the following:

Tincture of ambergris 1 pint.
Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Essence of lavender 1 pint.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of rose, from pomade 2 qts.
Tincture of vanilla. 1 pint.
Essence of vetiver 1 pint.

TINCTURE OF CIVET (EXTRAIT DE CIVETTE).

Civet. 1—1½ oz.
Orris root 1—1½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

Tincture of civet is exceedingly lasting and is generally employed for
fixing other odors. As to the quantity required to fix perfumes in
general, we may state that it varies with the nature of the odor. As a
rule, about one-sixteenth part of tincture of civet suffices for even
the most volatile perfumes.

TINCTURE OF CINNAMON (EXTRAIT DE CANELLE).

Cinnamon 1 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

Owing to the yellow color left upon handkerchiefs by perfumes prepared
with this extract, it can be used only for common goods, but it is more
frequently employed for scenting soaps.

According to the purposes for which they are intended, the various
articles of perfumery may be divided into several groups. They are:

TRUE PERFUMES.

A. _Liquid._—Alcoholic handkerchief perfumes. Among these are the
so-called extracts, bouquets, and waters. Ammoniacal and acid perfumes:
aromatic vinegars and volatile ammoniacal salts.

B. _Dry._—Sachet powders, fumigating pastils and powders.

PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE SKIN.

Emulsions, crêmes, perfumed soaps, toilet waters, nail powders.

PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE HAIR.

Hair oils, pomades, hair washes.


PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE MOUTH.

Tooth powders, mouth washes.

COSMETICS.

Paints, powders, hair dyes, depilatories, etc.

In connection with the description of these different articles some
remarks will be made about the colors employed in perfumery and about
the utensils used with the cosmetics, such as combs, brushes, sponges,
etc.