Oils with not very intense odor are generally

The manufacture of handkerchief perfumes is very simple: the extracts
prepared as directed in Chapter XI. are mixed in definite proportions
and the perfume is finished. If the extracts are well seasoned, the
perfumes blend in perfect harmony within a few days, and this time may
be even shortened by the use of the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 32.
If the extracts have been but recently prepared, a longer time will be
required before the odor of the alcohol and the several constituents is
imperceptible and all odors have blended into a harmonious whole.

If the manufacturer can afford to allow the finished extracts and
perfumes to season for some length of time—of course, in well-closed
and completely filled vessels—in a cool place, they will improve
markedly in quality. Perfumes which contain but a single odor or in
which a certain odor distinctly predominates are usually called by
the name of the respective plant, etc., under a French title, _e.g._,
extrait de violette, extrait de reséda, etc. Combinations of many odors
which produce an agreeable impression as a whole, while no one odor
predominates, are called bouquets or waters; for instance, Bouquet de
Jockey Club, Eau de Mille Fleurs, Cologne Water, Hungarian Water, etc.

The mixture of the extracts is effected in strong glass bottles of a
capacity exactly adapted to the perfume, so as to be completely filled.
For perfumes which require seasoning to make the odors blend we use
small glass balls of which enough are introduced into the bottle to
make the mixture rise into the neck of the container which is then
closed air-tight and preserved in a dark, cool place.

Of course, all perfumes should be perfectly clear and free from
turbidity. The extracts made from pomades or essential oils are clear
and furnish perfumes that remain so; extracts prepared from balsams or
resins should be allowed to stand at rest for several weeks and then be
carefully decanted from the sediment. Filtration should be dispensed
with unless absolutely unavoidable, on account of the large amount of
oxygen with which the extract would thereby come in contact, to the
detriment of the odor.

The bottles in which the perfumes are mixed, as well as those in which
they are put up for sale, must be perfectly dry, as a very small amount
of water often suffices to separate a portion of the aromatics and to
render the liquid turbid or opalescent.

Fine perfumes are always sold in glass vessels with ground-glass
stoppers; cork has a peculiar odor which it would communicate to the
liquid. For the more perfect exclusion of the air the stoppers and
bottle necks are moreover covered with animal membrane, sheet rubber,
or vegetable parchment, with an outer cap of white glove leather.

In the case of very expensive perfumes, much care is bestowed on the
container; certain perfumes are filled into bottles of peculiar form
and color, or into small porcelain jars provided with corresponding
labels printed in gold and colors. Sometimes the container costs many
times the price of the perfume. But as the finest perfumes are articles
of luxury in the truest sense of the word, they require extreme care
in their putting up; and good taste in the selection of the containers
for fluids, pomades, cosmetics, powders, etc., is of as much importance
to the perfumer as the possession of a sensitive and trained olfactory
organ.

In the following formulas for the preparation of bouquets, the words
extract, essence, and tincture have the same meaning as was explained
under Chapter XI. For cheap perfumes the corresponding essential oils
dissolved in alcohol, that is, the corresponding “essence,” is employed
in place of the true “extract.”

BOUQUET DE L’ALHAMBRA.

Extract of cassie 1 pint.
Extract of orange flower 1 pint.
Essence of geranium 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 2 qts.
Tincture of civet 1 pint.

EXTRAIT D’AMBRE, I.

Tincture of ambergris 3 qts.
Tincture of musk 1½ pints.
Oil of rose 1 oz.
Tincture of vanilla 13½ fl. oz.
Alcohol 3 pints.

EXTRAIT D’AMBRE, II.

Essence of rose (triple) 2 qts.
Tincture of ambergris 4 qts
Tincture of musk 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla 1 pint.

BOUQUET DE L’AMOUR.

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Tincture of ambergris 1 pint.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Tincture of musk 1 pint.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of violet 1 qt.

BAISERS DU PRINTEMPS (SPRING KISSES).

Extract of cassie 1 pint.
Tincture of ambergris 3 fl. oz.
Extract of jasmine 6 fl. oz.
Extract of rose 5 pints.
Extract of violet 5 pints.
Essence of rose (triple) 10 fl. oz.
Oil of bergamot 120 grains.
Oil of lemon 30 grains.

_Note._ Here and in all succeeding formulas, “oil of lemon” is meant to
be the finest “hand-pressed” oil.

EAU DE BERLIN.

Oil of anise 150 grains.
Oil of bergamot 1 oz.
Oil of cardamom 15 grains.
Oil of lemon 30 grains.
Oil of coriander 15 grains.
Oil of geranium 30 grains.
Oil of melissa 15 grains.
Oil of neroli 75 grains.
Oil of rose 30 grains.
Oil of santal 30 grains.
Oil of thyme 15 grains.
Alcohol 10 qts.

BUCKINGHAM FLOWERS.

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Tincture of ambergris 1 pint.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Tincture of orris root 1 pint.
Oil of lavender 40 grains.
Oil of neroli 40 grains.
Oil of rose 75 grains.

BOUQUET D’ANDORRE.

Extract of jasmine 1 pint.
Extract of rose 1 pint.
Extract of tuberose 1 pint.
Extract of violet 1 pint.
Tincture of orris root 1 pint.
Oil of geranium 75 grains.

BOUQUET DU BOSPHORE.

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Extract of jasmine ½ pint.
Extract of tuberose ½ pint.
Tincture of civet 18 grains.
Essence of rose (triple) ½ pint.
Oil of bitter almond 30 grains.

BOUQUET DES CHASSEURS.

Extract of cassie 20 fl. oz.
Tincture of musk 20 fl. oz.
Extract of neroli 20 fl. oz.
Extract of orange flower 20 fl. oz.
Tincture of tonka bean 40 fl. oz.
Tincture of orris root 20 fl. oz.
Oil of lemon ½ oz.
Essence of rose (triple) 5 pints.

BOUQUET DE LA COUR.

Tincture of ambergris 2 oz.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Tincture of musk 2 oz.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of violet 1 qt.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Oil of bergamot 45 grains.
Oil of lemon. 45 grains.
Oil of neroli 45 grains.

BOUQUET DE CHYPRE.

Tincture of ambergris 1 qt.
Tincture of musk 1 qt.
Tincture of tonka 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla 1 qt.
Tincture of orris root 1 qt.
Essence of rose (triple) 2 qts.

BOUQUET DES DÉLICES.

Tincture of ambergris 1 pint.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Extract of violet 1 qt.
Tincture of orris root 1 pint.
Oil of bergamot ½ oz.
Oil of lemon 1 oz.

BOUQUET DE FLEURS (NOSEGAY).

Tincture of benzoin 5½ oz.
Extract of rose 3 pints.
Extract of tuberose 3 pints.
Extract of violet 3 pints.
Oil of bergamot 2½ oz.
Oil of lemon 1¾ oz.
Oil of orange peel 1¾ oz.

CONVALLARIA (LILY OF THE VALLEY, FLEURS DE MAI).

Extract of cassie 1½ pints.
Extract of jasmine 1½ pints.
Extract of orange flower 1½ pints.
Extract of rose 1½ pints.
Tincture of vanilla 3 pints.
Oil of bitter almond ⅜ oz.

While this perfume is very pleasant, its odor has no resemblance to the
delicate fragrance of Convallaria majalis, our ordinary lily of the
valley.

COURONNE DE FLEURS (GARLAND OF FLOWERS).

Extract of cassie 20 fl. oz.
Tincture of ambergris 13½ fl. oz.
Extract of jasmine 20 fl. oz.
Tincture of musk 13½ fl. oz.
Tincture of orris root 5 pints.
Oil of bergamot 1½ oz.
Oil of lavender 1½ oz.
Oil of clove 75 grains.
Oil of neroli 1½ oz.
Oil of rose 1½ oz.
Alcohol 5 pints.

COURT BOUQUET.

Oil of bergamot ⅜ oz.
Oil of neroli 24 grains.
Alcohol 5½ oz.
Orris root 1 oz.
Storax, liquid 8 grains.
Musk 3 grains.

Macerate for two weeks, and filter.

ESTERHAZY BOUQUETS.

An old renowned perfume, a former rival of Cologne water; the name is
derived from a noble Hungarian family.

A. BOUQUET D’ESTERHAZY (FRENCH FORMULA).

Tincture of ambergris ½ pint.
Extract of neroli 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Tincture of tonka 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla 1 qt.
Tincture of vetiver 1 qt.
Tincture of orris root 1 qt.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Oil of clove 75 grains.
Oil of santal 75 grains.

B. BOUQUET ESTERHAZY (GERMAN FORMULA).

Calamus root 3 oz.
Cloves 3 oz.
Nutmeg 3 oz.
Alcohol 4 qts.

Macerate for two weeks and filter; in the filtrate dissolve:

Tincture of ambergris 6 oz.
Ammonia 30 grains.
Oil of bitter almond 30 grains.
Oil of lemon 3 oz.
Tincture of musk 6 oz.
Oil of neroli 60 grains.
Oil of orange peel 30 grains.
Oil of rose 75 grains.

CÈDRE DU LIBANON (CEDAR).

Oil of cedar wood 10½ oz.
Extract of rose 1 pint.
Alcohol 5 qts.

FIORI D’ITALIA.

Extract of cassie 1 pint.
Tincture of ambergris 5 oz.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Tincture of musk 5 oz.
Extract of rose 2 qts.
Extract of violet 1 qt.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.

LILAC (EXTRAIT DE LILAS).

Oil of bitter almond 15 grains.
Extract of orange flower 2 qts.
Extract of tuberose 3 qts.
Tincture of civet 2 to 3½ oz.

The above-named ingredients are exceedingly volatile; according to the
desired permanence of the perfume, more or less of the extract of civet
is added.

ESSENCE DES BOUQUETS, A (ESS. BOUQUET).

Tincture of ambergris 1 pint.
Tincture of orris root 2 qts.
Essence of rose (triple) 2 qts.
Oil of bergamot 4½ oz.
Oil of lemon 1 oz.

ESS. BOUQUET, B.

Extract of cassie 1 oz.
Extract of jasmine 1 oz.
Tincture of musk 1½ oz.
Oil of cassia 1½ oz.
Oil of lemon ½ oz.
Oil of lavender 1 oz.
Oil of neroli ½ oz.
Oil of clove 1½ oz.
Oil of palmarosa 1 oz.
Oil of petit grain 1 oz.
Oil of Portugal 1 oz.
Oil of rose 75 grains.
Oil of thyme 75 grains.
Alcohol 10 qts.

This perfume is much admired in England. The title Ess. Bouquet is an
abbreviation of the full name given above.

ESS. BOUQUET, C.

Tincture of ambergris 2 oz.
Tincture of orris 8 oz.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 pint.
Oil of lemon ¼ oz.
Oil of bergamot 1 oz.

FLORIDA.

Oil of bergamot 60 grains.
Oil of lemon 90 grains.
Oil of lavender 15 grains.
Oil of clove 8 grains.
Alcohol 5 qts.

BOUQUET DE FLORE.

Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 1 pint.
Extract of tuberose 1 pint.
Extract of violet ½ pint.
Tincture of benzoin 3 fl. oz.
Tincture of storax 3 fl. oz.
Tincture of musk 1½ fl. oz.
Oil of citronella ¾ oz.
Alcohol 2 qts.

HONEYSUCKLE (EXTRAIT DE CHÈVRE-FEUILLE).

Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Extract of violet 1 qt.
Tincture of tolu ½ pint.
Tincture of vanilla ½ pint.
Oil of bitter almond 15 grains.
Oil of neroli 8 grains.

HELIOTROPE, A (EXTRAIT DE HÉLIOTROPE).

Extract of rose 2 qts.
Extract of orange flower 14 oz.
Tincture of ambergris 7 oz.
Tincture of vanilla 4 qts.
Oil of bitter almond 75 grains.

A very lasting perfume which is especially suitable for scenting the
linen in a press.

HELIOTROPE, B.

Vanilla 15 grains.
Oil of neroli 2 drops.
Oil of bitter almond 1 drop.
Musk 1½ grains.
Benzoin 45 grains.
Cologne spirit 3½ oz.

Macerate for one week, and filter.

NEW-MOWN HAY.

Hay owes its fragrance partly to cumarin, which is present in many
plants, but in especially large amount in tonka beans. Hence all
similar perfumes must contain tincture of tonka. Other aromatic
substances, however, contribute to the odor of hay, but the cumarin
gives, as it were, the keynote to its real odor.

A very pleasant perfume is made after the following formula:

Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Essence of geranium 1 qt.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Tincture of tonka 2 qts.

Some add to this perfume 1 pint of extract of cassie which imparts a
greenish color to it.

ROYAL HORSE-GUARD’S BOUQUET.

Extract of orange flower 20 fl. oz.
Tincture of musk 10 fl. oz.
Extract of rose 5 pints.
Tincture of vanilla 20 fl. oz.
Tincture of orris root 20 fl. oz.
Oil of clove 120 grains.

BOUQUET D’IRLANDE.

Extract of white rose 5 qts.
Tincture of vanilla 1 lb.

An exceedingly fine perfume.

HOVENIA.

This plant, Hovenia dulcis, indigenous to Japan, has a peculiar odor,
which, however, is not pleasant to European taste. The perfume sold
under this name has a special odor, though it differs from that of the
plant. It is made according to the following formula:

Oil of lemon 3 oz.
Oil of clove ¼ oz.
Oil of neroli 75 grains.
Oil of rose 75 grains.
Alcohol 5 qts.

HUNTSMAN’S NOSEGAY.

Essence of rose (triple) 1 pint.
Extract of cassie 6 fl. oz.
Extract of orange flower 6 fl. oz.
Tincture of musk 150 grains.
Tincture of tonka 1 pint.
Oil of citronella 150 grains.
Alcohol 3 qts.

BOUQUET DU JAPON.

Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Essence of patchouly ½ pint.
Extract of verbena 1 pint.
Essence of vetiver 1 pint.
Tincture of civet 3 fl. oz.
Tincture of musk. ⅓ fl. oz.

EAU JAPONAISE.

Tincture of cedar wood 1 qt.
Essence of patchouly 1 qt.
Extract of santal 1 qt.
Extract of verbena 1 qt.
Essence of vetiver 1 pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.

JOCKEY CLUB.

England first introduced a perfume under this name, which soon became
popular and was largely imitated. Jockey Club perfume is among the
finest known to the trade; the delicacy of its odor rests largely
on the extracts of cassie and tuberose which are employed in their
strongest form—an alcoholic extract of a pomade well charged with the
odors of the plants. As in the case of Cologne water, there are a
number of widely diverging formulas for its preparation, from which we
select a few which furnish excellent perfumes.

JOCKEY CLUB, A (ENGLISH FORMULA).

Extract of cassie 1 pint.
Tincture of ambergris ¾ pint.
Extract of rose 1½ pints.
Extract of tuberose ¾ pint.
Tincture of orris root 3 pints.
Essence of rose (triple) 1½ pints.
Oil of bergamot ¾ oz.

JOCKEY CLUB, B (FRENCH FORMULA).

Extract of cassie 1½ pints.
Extract of jasmine 2¼ pints.
Extract of rose 3 pints.
Extract of tuberose 3 pints.
Tincture of civet ½ pint.

JOCKEY CLUB, C (GERMAN FORMULA).

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Tincture of ambergris 13½ fl. oz.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Extract of rose 1 pint.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Extract of violet 1 pint.
Tincture of civet 20 fl. oz.
Oil of bergamot ¾ oz.
Oil of citronella ½ oz.
Oil of neroli ½ oz.

JONQUILLE (EXTRAIT DE JONQUILLE).

Extract of jasmine 2 qts.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 2 qts.
Tincture of vanilla ½ pint.

KISS ME QUICK.

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Extract of ambergris ½ pint.
Extract of narcissus (Jonquille) 2 qts.
Tincture of tonka 1 qt.
Tincture of orris root 2 qts.
Tincture of civet ½ pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Oil of citronella 75 grains.
Oil of lemon grass 45 grains.

This perfume, which was once very popular, owes its peculiar refreshing
odor to the tincture of tonka beans; by increasing this ingredient the
specific odor can be made more pronounced.

BOUQUET COSMOPOLITE.

Extract of jasmine 1 pint.
Essence of lavender ½ pint.
Tincture of musk ½ pint.
Essence of patachouly ½ pint.
Extract of santal ½ pint.
Extract of tuberose 1 pint.
Tincture of vanilla ½ pint.
Extract of violet 1 qt.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 pint.
Oil of citronella 75 grains.
Oil of lemon ½ oz.

COLOGNE WATER (EAU DE COLOGNE).

This famous perfume, which was first made in Cologne on the Rhine,
its formula being kept secret, can be produced anywhere of the same
quality as the original. In order to obtain a first-class product, it
is necessary, besides using the finest oils—a matter of course for all
fine perfumes—to observe another special point. Every Cologne water
contains oils of the citron group which develop their best odors only
in true spirit of _wine_. Unless an alcohol distilled from _wine_
is used, it will be impossible to make a Cologne water of really
first quality. While it is possible to make a good cologne with grain
or potato spirit, especially if highly rectified, comparison with
one prepared from pure spirit of _wine_ will at once show a marked
difference. The small amount of œnanthic ether, hardly demonstrable by
chemical tests but present in every spirit of wine, exerts a decided
influence on the flavor.

Cologne water of the most superior and incomparable quality is made
by dissolving the essential oils, excepting the oils of rosemary and
neroli, in the alcohol and distilling it, the other oils being added to
the distillate.

A very large number of formulas for the preparation of Cologne water
have been published of which we subjoin a few. We have purposely
omitted those containing many essential oils, as experience has taught
us that they are of little value; for it is not the number of oils that
determines the fineness of a perfume, but the manner in which certain
odors are combined.

A. FINEST COLOGNE WATER (EAU DE COLOGNE SUPÉRIEURE).

Oil of bergamot 2½ oz.
Oil of lemon (hand-pressed) 6 oz.
Oil of neroli pétale 3½ oz.
Oil of neroli bigarade 1¼ oz.
Oil of rosemary 2½ oz.
Alcohol 30 qts.

B. COLOGNE WATER (SECOND QUALITY).

Oil of bergamot 4½ oz.
Oil of lemon 4½ oz.
Oil of neroli pétale ¾ oz.
Oil of orange peel 4½ oz.
Oil of petit grain 2½ oz.
Oil of rosemary 2½ oz.
Alcohol 30 qts.

C. COLOGNE WATER (ORDINARY).

Oil of bergamot 7 oz.
Oil of lemon 3½ oz.
Oil of lavender 3½ oz.
Alcohol 30 qts.

D. COLOGNE WATER.

Oil of bergamot 1¾ oz.
Oil of lemon 3½ oz.
Oil of lavender 150 grains.
Oil of neroli ½ oz.
Oil of rosemary 75 grains.
Alcohol 30 qts.

E. COLOGNE WATER.

Oil of bergamot 2 oz.
Oil of lemon 1 oz.
Oil of lavender ½ oz.
Oil of melissa ¼ oz.
Oil of neroli ¼ oz.
Alcohol 30 qts.

F. COLOGNE WATER.

Oil of bergamot 3½ oz.
Oil of lemon ½ oz.
Oil of lavender ¼ oz.
Oil of melissa ½ oz.
Oil of neroli ¼ oz.
Alcohol 30 qts.

G. COLOGNE WATER.

Oil of bergamot 1 lb.
Oil of lemon 1 lb.
Oil of lavender 6½ oz.
Oil of neroli ¾ oz.
Oil of petit grain 1½ oz.
Oil of orange peel 1 lb.
Oil of rosemary 150 grains.
Alcohol 30 qts.

H. COLOGNE WATER.

Oil of bergamot 2¼ oz. Oil of cajuput ½ oz. Oil of lemon 4½ oz. Oil of
lavender 6½ oz. Oil of neroli 2¼oz. Oil of orange peel 4½ oz. Oil of
petit grain ½ oz. Orange-flower water 1 qt. Alcohol 30 qts.

The numerous formulas show that oils of lemon, bergamot, and orange
form normal constituents of every Cologne water; the finer grades
always contain, in addition, oils of rosemary and neroli. It is
advisable to dissolve the aromatics in very strong alcohol and then to
effect the dilution required with orange-flower or rose water. This
dilution is also to be employed when a cheaper product is desired.

LAVENDER PERFUMES.

English (Mitcham) oil of lavender should always be used when it is
desired to produce perfumes of first quality.

EAU DE LAVANDE AMBRÉE.

Oil of bergamot 1 oz.
Oil of lemon ½ oz.
Oil of geranium 75 grains.
Oil of lavender 5½ oz.
Musk 8 grains.
Peru balsam 2 oz.
Storax 4¼ oz.
Civet 15 grains.
Alcohol 10 qts.

The essential oils are dissolved in the alcohol, the other substances
are macerated in the solution for one month, and the liquid decanted.

EAU DE LAVANDE DOUBLE.

Tincture of musk 3 fl. oz.
Tincture of vanilla 3 fl. oz.
Tincture of civet 3 fl. oz.
Oil of bergamot 1¼ oz.
Oil of lemon ¾ oz.
Oil of lavender 3½ oz.
Rose water (triple) 1 qt.
Alcohol 10 qts.

EAU DE LAVANDE A MILLE FLEURS.

Tincture of ambergris ½ pint.
Essence of lavender 2 qts.
Eau de mille fleurs (see below, page 186) 2 qts.

LEAP-YEAR BOUQUET.

Extract of jasmine 3 pints.
Essence of patchouly 1½ pints.
Essence of santal 1½ pints.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Extract of verbena 6½ fl. oz.
Essence of vetiver 1½ pints.
Essence of rose (triple) 1½ pints.

EAU DE LEIPSIC.

Oil of lemon ¾ oz.
Oil of neroli ¾ oz.
Oil of orange peel 150 grains.
Oil of bergamot 2¼ oz.
Oil of rosemary 75 grains.
Orange-flower water 1 qt.
Alcohol 9 pints.

WALLFLOWER (EXTRAIT DE GIROFLÉ).

Extract of cassie 1 pint.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla 1 pint.
Tincture of orris root 1 pint.
Oil of bitter almond 8 grains.

LILY (EXTRAIT DE LYS).

Extract of cassie 3 pints.
Extract of jasmine 13½ fl. oz.
Extract of orange flower 27 fl. oz.
Extract of rose 1 pint.
Extract of tuberose 3 qts.
Tincture of vanilla 40 fl. oz.
Oil of bitter almond 30 grains.

EAU DE LISBONNE.

Oil of lemon 2¼ oz.
Oil of orange peel 4½ oz.
Oil of rose ¼ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

MAGNOLIA (EXTRAIT DE MAGNOLIA).

Extract of orange flower 2 qts.
Extract of rose 4 qts.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Extract of violet 1 qt.
Oil of bitter almond 40 grains.
Oil of lemon 15 grains.

LILY OF THE VALLEY.

Oil of bitter almond 150 grains.
Extract of jasmine 7 oz.
Extract of neroli 7 oz.
Extract of cassie 14 oz.
Extract of tuberose 28 oz.
Alcohol 28 oz.

LILY OF THE VALLEY EXTRACT.

Extract of jasmine 3½ oz.
Extract of ylang-ylang (see below, p. 198) ½ oz.
Cardamom seed, crushed 75 grains.
Oil of orris 10 drops.

Macerate for a week, and filter.

The amount of cardamom seed is to be weighed exactly; should its odor
still be too pronounced, extract of jasmine should be gradually added
until the right aroma is obtained.

BOUQUET A LA MARÉCHALE.

Tincture of ambergris ½ pint.
Tincture of musk ½ pint.
Extract of neroli 1 pint.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Tincture of tonka 1 pint.
Tincture of vanilla 1 pint.
Tincture of orris root 1 pint.
Essence of vetiver 1 pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Oil of clove 75 grains.
Oil of santal 75 grains.

A LA MODE.

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Tincture of civet 1 pint.
Oil of bitter almond 75 grains.
Oil of nutmeg 60 grains.

A. EAU DE MILLE FLEURS.

Extract of cassie 1 pint.
Essence of cedar 1 pint.
Extract of jasmine 1 pint.
Tincture of musk 6 fl. oz.
Extract of neroli 1 pint.
Extract of patchouly 1 pint.
Tincture of vanilla 1 pint.
Extract of violet 1 pint.
Essence of vetiver 1 pint.
Tincture of civet 6 fl. oz.
Oil of lemon ½ oz.
Oil of geranium ¾ oz.
Oil of lavender ¾ oz.
Oil of orange peel ½ oz.

B. EAU DE MILLE FLEURS.

Extract of cassie 1 pint.
Tincture of ambergris ½ pint.
Essence of cedar ½ pint.
Extract of jasmine 1 pint.
Tincture of musk ½ pint.
Extract of orange flower 1 pint.
Extract of rose 1 pint.
Extract of tuberose 1 pint.
Tincture of vanilla ½ pint.
Extract of violet 1 pint.
Essence of rose (simple) 1 qt.
Oil of bergamot 1¼ oz.
Oil of bitter almond 24 grains.
Oil of clove 24 grains.
Oil of neroli 24 grains.

C. EAU DE MILLE FLEURS A PALMAROSE.

Extract of cassie 6 fl. oz.
Essence of cedar 3 fl. oz.
Tincture of musk 3 fl. oz.
Extract of violet 6 fl. oz.
Oil of bergamot 1½ oz.
Oil of cedar 1¾ oz.
Oil of lemon ¼ oz.
Oil of lavender ¼ oz.
Oil of clove ¼ oz.
Oil of palmarosa ½ oz.
Alcohol 9 pints.

FLEURS DE MONTPELLIER.

Tincture of ambergris 10 fl. oz.
Tincture of musk 10 fl. oz.
Extract of rose 3 pints.
Extract of tuberose 3 pints.
Essence of rose (triple) 3 pints.
Oil of bergamot 1¾ oz.
Oil of clove ¼ oz.

FLEURS DES CHAMPS.

Extract of cassie 3½ oz.
Extract of jasmine 3½ oz.
Tincture of musk 3½ oz.
Tincture of tonka 3 pints.
Tincture of orris root 7 oz.
Oil of geranium 1½ oz.
Oil of neroli 1½ oz.
Oil of rose ⅞ oz.
Alcohol 3 qts.

HUILE DE MILLE FLEURS.

(For perfuming hair oils and pomades.)

Oil of cinnamon 10 drops.
Oil of neroli 20 drops.
Oil of rose 20 drops.
Oil of clove —
Oil of orange peel 15 grains.
Oil of calamus 20 drops.
Oil of geranium 150 grains.
Oil of lemon ½ oz.
Oil of bergamot 2½ oz.
Oil of verbena 75 grains.

MUSK (EXTRAIT DE MUSC).

Tincture of ambergris 3 pints.
Tincture of musk 3 qts.
Extract of rose 1½ pints.

MOUSSELINE.

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Bouquet à la maréchale 2 qts.
Oil of santal ¾ oz.

MYRTLE (EXTRAIT DE MYRTHE).

Extract of jasmine ½ pint.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Extract of rose 2 qts.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla 1 qt.

NARCISSUS (EXTRAIT DE NARCISSE).

Extract of jonquille 2 qts.
Extract of tuberose 3 qts.
Tincture of storax ½ pint.
Tincture of tolu ½ pint.

NAVY’S NOSEGAY.

Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Essence of patchouly 3 fl. oz.
Extract of verbena 6 fl. oz.
Essence of vetiver 6 fl. oz.
Oil of bitter almond 150 grains.
Oil of citronella ¾ oz.
Oil of nutmeg 75 grains.

NEW-MOWN HAY.

Tonka beans, in pieces 75 grains.
Orris root 150 grains.
Vanillin 8 grains.
Oil of bergamot 30 drops.
Oil of neroli 2 drops.
Oil of rose 2 drops.
Oil of lavender 2 drops.
Oil of clove 1 drop.
Patchouly herb 3 grains
Benzoic acid 8 grains.
Nettle herb 30 grains.
Alcohol 7½ oz.

Digest for two weeks, and filter.

PINK (EXTRAIT D’ŒILLET).

Extract of cassie 2½ pints.
Extract of orange flower 2½ pints.
Extract of rose 5 pints.
Tincture of vanilla 20 fl. oz.
Oil of clove 75 grains.

ESSENCE OF SWEET PEA.

Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla 5½ oz.

POLYANTHUS.

Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of jasmine 1 pint.
Extract of violet ½ pint.
Tincture of musk 2½ fl. drachms.
Oil of neroli ¾ oz.
Oil of lemon ¾ oz.
Alcohol 2 qts.

EAU DU PORTUGAL.

Oil of bergamot 1 oz.
Oil of lemon 2¼ oz.
Oil of orange peel ½ lb.
Oil of rose ¼ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

QUEEN VICTORIA’S PERFUME.

Extract of cassie 10 fl. oz.
Extract of rose 5 pints.
Extract of orange flower 20 fl. oz.
Extract of tuberose 2½ pints.
Extract of violet 5 pints.
Tincture of civet 3 fl. oz.
Oil of bergamot ¾ oz.
Oil of citron 150 grains.

PATCHOULY (EXTRAIT DE PATCHOULI).

Oil of patchouly 1½ oz.
Oil of rose 150 grains.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF RESEDA.

(Artificial, almost indistinguishable from the genuine.)

Tonka beans, in pieces 30 grains.
Storax, liquid 15 grains.
Orris root 1¾ oz.
Oil of neroli 10 drops.
Oil of rose 10 drops.
Oil of bitter almond 2 drops.
Oil of bergamot 20 drops.
Ambergris 15 grains.
Musk 8 grains.
Nettle herb 30 grains.
Alcohol ½ lb.

Macerate for from one to two weeks, and filter.

RONDELETIA ODORATISSIMA.

Tincture of ambergris 4¼ oz.
Tincture of musk 4¼ oz.
Tincture of vanilla 4¼ oz.
Oil of bergamot 1 oz.
Oil of lavender 2¼ oz.
Oil of clove 1¼ oz.
Oil of rose 75 grains.
Alcohol 4 qts.

The odor of Rondeletia has not thus far been isolated, at least
in Europe (the plant is indigenous to the Antilles). The oils of
lavender and clove together constitute the odor known in perfumery as
Rondeletia. By increasing the quantity of the two oils, the strength of
the perfume may be heightened.

ROYAL NOSEGAY.

Tincture of ambergris 2½ oz.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Tincture of musk 3 fl. oz.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla ½ pint.
Extract of violet 1 qt.
Essence of vetiver ½ pint.
Oil of bergamot 75 grains.
Oil of clove 1¾ oz.

ROSE ODORS.

The art of perfumery has endeavored to fix this most magnificent of
all odors, and we must confess that in this case it has succeeded in
solving the problem in a manner unequalled in any other perfume. We
are able to imitate not only the pure rose odor, but also those of its
several varieties such as the tea rose, moss rose, etc., both as to
character and intensity. Fine rose odors can be produced in their full
fragrance only from pomade extracts; the various rose oils furnish
inferior products.

ROSA CENTIFOLIA, A (FINEST QUALITY).

Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Rose pomade 8 lbs.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ROSE, B (LESS FINE).

Oil of rose 3½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

CHINA ROSE (ROSES JAUNES).

Essence of rose (triple) 2 qts.
Tincture of tonka ½ pint.
Extract of tuberose 2 qts.
Extract of verbena ½ pint.

DOG ROSE (EGLANTINE).

Extract of cassie 2½ pints.
Extract of orange flower 2½ pints.
Extract of rose 5 pints.
Essence of rose (triple) 2½ pints.
Oil of lemon-grass ¼ oz.
Oil of neroli ¼ oz.

MOSS ROSE (ROSE MOUSSEUSE).

Extract of rose 2 qts.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Tincture of ambergris 1 pint.
Tincture of musk ½ lb.

TEA ROSE (ROSE THÉA).

Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of geranium 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower ½ pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Extract of santal ½ pint.
Tincture of orris root ½ pint.

WHITE ROSE (ROSES BLANCHES).

Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of jasmine 1 pint.
Extract of violet 1 qt.
Essence of patchouly ½ pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.

WHITE ROSE.

Oil of rose 15 drops.
Patchouly herb 3 grains.
Musk 3 grains.
Cologne spirit 7 oz.

TWIN ROSE (ROSES JUMELLES).

Extract of rose 5 qts.
Oil of rose 1¾ oz.

SPRING NOSEGAY.

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Tincture of ambergris 13½ fl. oz.
Essence of geranium 1 qt.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 2 qts.
Tincture of musk 10 fl. oz.

SUAVE.

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Tincture of ambergris ¼ pint.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Tincture of musk ¼ pint.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla ¾ pint.
Oil of bergamot ½ oz.
Oil of clove 30 grains.
Oil of mace 30 grains.

HELIOTROPE BOUQUET (FLEURS SOLSTICIALES).

Extract of cassie 13½ fl. oz.
Tincture of ambergris 5 fl. oz.
Extract of jasmine 2½ pints.
Tincture of musk 5 fl. oz.
Extract of rose 5 pints.
Extract of violet 2½ pints.
Extract of verbena 13½ fl. oz.
Essence of rose (triple) 2½ pints.
Oil of bergamot 1½ oz.
Oil of lemon 1½ oz.

BOUQUET DE STAMBOUL.

Extract of rose 2½ pints.
Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 1 pint.
Tincture of civet ½ pint.
Oil of bitter almond 150 grains.

SYRINGA.

Extract of reseda 1¾ oz.
Extract of violet 3½ oz.
Patchouly herb 5 grains.
Benzoic acid 8 grains.
Oil of orris 10 drops.
Alcohol 1¾ oz.

TULIPE ODORIFÉRANTE.

Extract of cassie 6 fl. oz.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Extract of rose 1 pint.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Tincture of orris root 1 qt.
Oil of bitter almond 15 grains.
Oil of neroli 30 grains.

HUNGARIAN WATER (EAU HONGROISE).

Extract of orange flower 1 pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 pint.
Oil of lemon 1 oz.
Oil of melissa 1 oz.
Oil of peppermint 30 grains.
Oil of rosemary 2 oz.
Alcohol (from wine) 5 qts.

BOUQUET DE VIRGINIE.

Essence of geranium 1 pint.
Tincture of musk 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Extract of santal 1 pint.
Tincture of tonka 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla 1 qt.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 pint.

VIOLET (VIOLETTES).

Violet pomade 6 to 7 lb.
Extract of cassie 6 fl. oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This is the finest among the true violet perfumes. Less fine, though
still of prime quality, is the following:

Extract of cassie 2 qts.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Tincture of orris root 1 qt.
Oil of bitter almond 15 grains.

VERBENA A (EXTRAIT DE VERVEINE).

Oil of lemon grass ½ oz.
Oil of lemon 14 oz.
Oil of orange peel 3½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

A cheap and pleasant perfume: the following is far superior.

VERBENA B.

Oil of lemon 10½ oz.
Oil of lemon grass 6 oz.
Oil of orange peel 5 oz.
Extract of orange flower 2 lb.
Extract of rose 3 lb.
Extract of tuberose 2 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This “Extract of Verbena B” is a modification of that given previously,
on page 164.

EXTRAIT DE VERVEINE C.

Extract of orange flower 30 fl. oz.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 30 fl. oz.
Oil of lemon 1 oz.
Oil of lemon grass ¾ oz.
Oil of orange peel ¼ lb.
Alcohol 4½ pints.

VIOLETTES DES MONTAGNES.

Extract of cassie 13½ fl. oz.
Extract of jasmine 13½ fl. oz.
Extract of rose 13½ fl. oz.
Extract of violet 2 qts.
Tincture of orris root 13½ fl. oz.
Oil of bitter almond 30 grains.

VOLCAMERIA.

Extract of jasmine 1 pint.
Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose 2 qts.
Extract of violet 2 qts.
Tincture of musk ½ pint.

FOREST BREEZE (PINE-NEEDLE ODOR.)

Oil of turpentine 14 oz.
Oil of lavender 1½ oz.
Oil of lemon grass ¾ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The oil of turpentine must be clear like water, and most carefully
rectified. If it can be obtained of good quality, the oil distilled
from the leaves or needles of Pinus sylvestris, commonly known as
pine-needle oil or fir-wool oil, is to be preferred for this purpose.
Still better is the oil obtained from Pinus Pumilio.

WEST END.

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Tincture of ambergris ½ pint.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Tincture of musk ½ pint.
Extract of tuberose 1 qt.
Extract of violet 1 qt.
Essence of rose (triple) 3 pints.
Oil of bergamot 1 oz.
Oil of lemon 75 grains.

WINTERGREEN.

Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Tincture of ambergris 1 pint.
Extract of lavender 1 pint.
Extract of orange flower 1 qt.
Extract of rose 2 qts.
Tincture of vanilla 1 pint.
Essence of vetiver 1 pint.

FLOWERS OF THE ISLE OF WIGHT.

Extract of rose 1 qt.
Extract of santal 2 qts.
Tincture of orris root 1 qt.
Essence of vetiver 1 pint.

YACHT CLUB.

Extract of cassie 6 fl. oz.
Extract of jasmine 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower 2 qts.
Extract of santal 2 qts.
Tincture of vanilla 1 pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Benzoic acid, sublimed 1½ oz.

The characteristic odor of this perfume depends upon the volatile oil
adhering to the sublimed benzoic acid; for this reason no other benzoic
acid should be used than that obtained by sublimation.

YLANG-YLANG.

Cologne water 4 qts.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla 3½ oz.
Tincture of tolu 14 oz.
Oil of neroli 75 grains.
Oil of ylang-ylang ¾ oz.

APPENDIX.

The great majority of the above-described perfumes are made with
extracts prepared from pomades; hence their cost of production is
considerable and the selling-price high. For the requirements of the
middle classes, quite fragrant perfumes are manufactured by dissolving
the cheaper essential oils in ordinary alcohol, and various new odors
can be obtained by mixing several of them. The extracts made with cheap
oils are well suited to this purpose. The oils most frequently used
for such articles are those of bergamot, lemon, orange peel, lavender
flowers (French), lemon grass, nutmeg, clove, and santal. The alcohol
must be free from fusel oil and have a strength of at least 70% Tralles.

Oils with not very intense odor are generally used in the proportion of
about 2 to 2½ ounces to the quart of alcohol; half that quantity will
suffice for strong-scented oils such as those of lemon-grass, clove,
and nutmeg.

From these simple solutions an experienced manufacturer can produce
very nice perfumes by mixing them in due proportions; they are
comparatively cheap, and sometimes they yield relatively more profit
than the finest articles, whose contents and containers generally
represent a considerable outlay on the part of the manufacturer.

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