《内经》云:“脉以候阴阳”

脉之造字

首先我们还是从造字来看。脉由月+永构成,我们现在的简体就用这个脉。还有另一个是月+“派”的右半边即“脈”,这是比较正规的写法。月字在这里是形符,《说文》和《康熙》都把它放在肉部。所以,月可作两个部首,一个是月亮的月,一个是肉。《说文》、《康熙》将脉(脈)置于肉部,我的意见是对一半错一半。说对一半是因为从形上讲,脉确实是由肉构成的。但是,如果从功用上,从更广义上讲,脉置肉部就有诸多不妥。它应该置于月部。

月就是月亮,《说文》释月为“太阴之精”,《史记·天官书》曰:“月者,阴精之宗”。而《淮南子·天文训》则云:“水气之精者为月。”也就是说,月为水气之精凝结而成。

永的本意是长,把这个长放在历史里就是永恒。如果把它放在自然里,这个长与什么才堪称配呢?当然只有江河才能相配。所以,《说文》云:“永长也,象水巠理之长。”我们经常讲源远流长,在本义上就是指江河。你看长江从唐古拉山起源后,一直流到大海,横穿整个内陆东西。还有什么比这个更长?所以,永的本义就是这样,它代表江河,代表江河的主流。而“脈”之右半的意思呢?它也与水有关,表示江河的支流。一个主流,一个支流,两个都是讲水。所以,这个脉字必定是与水相关的。

脉义

形声二符的意义已如前说,形符我们还是从月讲。月属阴,阴的东西是黑暗的,不应该有亮光。但为什么月会有亮光呢?古人讲这是日使之明也。也就是说属阴的月本无明,而有了日,有了太阳它就会明。所以,月的光明主要与太阳相关。我们常说水中月、镜中花,其实水中本无月,镜中亦无花。月的明亮也就是这样一个关系,它好比一面镜子,一面太阳的镜子,一面阳气的镜子。因此,月相的变化情况,从天文的角度讲,它反映的是日、地、月三者之间的相互关系;从中医的角度讲,它反映的是阳气的进退消长。所以,整个月的阴晴圆缺它并不在于说明其他的什么,而说明的就是这个阳气的变化。

今天是农历十一,再过四天就是十五,从这个时候起,月亮在一天天变圆,直至形成十五的满月。月属阴,月满了是不是就意味着阴气满呢?不是的。恰恰相反,它反映的是阳气满,阳气充满,阳气盛大。这就引出一个月周期的问题。前面我们曾讲过年周期和日周期的问题,有的人发病跟这个年周期很有关系。比如胃病的病人,有的就喜欢在春天发作,其他季节他比较平静,可是每到春天胃就不舒服。

这样一个发病特征就提示我们这个病与东方很有关系,与肝木很有关系,应该从这方面来考虑治疗。还有的病人在年周期上没有特征,可是在日周期内却很有特征,他这个病就是傍晚的时候不舒服,其他时间相安无事。这是什么原因呢?从前面谈的日周期我们知道,傍晚的时分对应秋,这就与西方、与肺金有关。这里我们提出月周期,也就是说在每一个月周期里面也存在一个春夏秋冬的变化,也存在一个生长收藏的变化,根据病人在月周期内的发病特征,我们可以做出一个相关性的判断,从而有利于疾病的诊断与治疗。

汉代的魏伯阳造有一本《周易参同契》。这本书在历代都受到极高的重视,享有“万古丹经王”之美称。这本书对月相的变化是用易卦来描述的,比如这个十五,它所对应的是乾卦:“十五乾体就,盛满甲东方。”乾卦三爻皆阳,是纯阳卦,月满用乾来表示,正说明了月满是阳气最隆盛的时候,这个时候阳气处在最大的释放状态。月满一过,重阳必阴,阳气逐渐地转入收,转入藏。月相也渐渐由满变缺。到了二十二、二十三即成为下弦月,这个时候的阳气状态与秋相应。下弦以后,月的亮区进一步“萎缩”,直至三十,什么都没有了,只见一个月亮的影子,这个时候就叫晦。在晦这个时候,月亮跑到哪去了呢?月亮还是在那儿。就像我们的镜子,刚才镜中还有花,为什么这会儿没有了?因为你把花拿掉了,藏起来了,而镜子仍然在那儿。

这个时候阳气没有显现,阳气都收藏起来了。所以,月就不明了,这就成为晦。所以,晦这个时候就与冬藏相应。因此,整个月象的变化,实际上就是说明阳气变化的这么一个问题。月象所呈现的不是其他,就是一个阳气,故月又称为阳镜。月为阳镜的这个说法,不知道古代有没有,如果没有,则权作我们的一个创造。所以,月象变化的这个过程,实际上就是以阴显阳,以阴现阳的过程。

月的这样一个意义谈完了,现在再回过头来看水。水也是属阴,是一个静物。它只有往下走,所以,我们常说:人往高处走,水往低处流。但是,有些时候也会有例外,水也会有起落,比如潮水的涨落就是一个典型的例子。这就促使我们去思考这个导致涨落的因素。今年中央电视台刚好转播了钱塘江观潮的盛况,大家也看到了,这个过程确实蔚为壮观。特别是两股潮碰撞回旋的时候,正好形成一个天然的太极阴阳图,这使我们想到了什么叫做“道法自然”。古人所搞出来的这些东西,都不是胡思乱想出来的,都是有根据的,这个根据就是自然。

水这样一个静物为什么会涨起来?而且涨得这么汹涌澎湃。这跟月亮一样,月本无光而阳使之光。水本为静而阳使之动。所以,这完全是一个阳气的问题。既然是阳气的问题,那么,这个涨落必然会与时间相关,与阳气的变化相关。古人讲月满观潮,就是说潮涨一般都在月圆的时候。月圆潮起,月亏潮落,这是什么原因呢?从现代科学的角度,从海洋潮汐学的角度,认为在月圆的时候,月地的引力最大,由于引力的作用产生了潮涨的变化,也就是说潮的起落与月地的引力相关。这个是现代科学的说法。

但是,在古代还没有引力这个概念,是什么因素导致这个潮汐的涨落变化呢?既然有变化,那必定要找阴阳,这是《素问·阴阳应象大论》明确规定的。是什么因素能使这个阴静而下的东西升涨起来呢?除了阳再没有别的东西。阳主动主升,惟有靠阳的鼓动作用才能使水升涨为潮。而恰恰月满的时候是阳气最隆盛的时候,这就与现代科学的说法吻合了。阳气的作用,就使这个静者变动,就使这个下者变高。因此,潮汐的涨落变化实际上反映了阳气的变化,是阳加于阴方为潮,这与月为阳镜的道理同出一辙。

在自然界,海洋的潮汐受月地引力的作用,受阳气的影响。那么,在人体呢?根据天人相应的原理,人体的情况应该跟这个过程相似,而这个相似的东西就是血脉。几年前《中国青年》杂志的一篇文章正好支持了以上这个说法。这篇文章有两个观点:一个是最原始的生命起源于海洋,这个问题我们在厥阴篇会有详细的论证。生命的起源跟河图很有关系,跟五行很有关系;另外一点就是认为人体的血液跟海水具有很大的相似性。

为什么呢?人血是咸的,海水也是咸的。所以,自然有江河湖海,人身就有血脉。血者水也。血本静物,它为什么会在血管中流动,进而产生脉搏呢?当然,我们从现代的角度很清楚,这是由于心脏的不停收缩造成的,但是,光从这个角度来理解还不能解决问题。心脏收缩产生脉搏,这一点古人已经认识到,并且将这个问题归结到胃气里面。但是,要使这个脉理与整个医理相应,那么,脉的变化还是要归到阴阳上来。树欲静而风不止,阴血欲静而阳动之。如果我们用一句话把整个脉理浓缩进去,给脉下一个定义,那么这个定义就是:阳加于阴谓之脉。

知道了脉的这个道理,这就好办了,你就会明白我们号脉是为了什么?那就是为了了解阴阳。《内经》云:“脉以候阴阳”。脉为什么可以候阴阳呢?就因为脉的形成,脉的变化具备了阴阳的要素。所以,我们号脉的最根本、最重要的意义就是了解阴阳。《素问·阴阳应象大论》云:“阴阳者,天地之道也,万物之纲纪,变化之父母,生杀之本始,神明之府也,治病必求于本。”在前面第二章里我们曾讨论过这个本的问题,本就是阴阳。

因为一切事物的发生、发展、变化都与这个阴阳有关,都是阴阳的变化导致的,疾病当然也不例外。现在我们要了解这个疾病,要考察这个疾病,看是什么因素导致的这个疾病,那我们从什么地方入手呢?当然要从根本上入手。从根本上入手就离不开阴阳。而阴阳从哪里去了解呢?脉!既然脉能够这样好地反映阴阳,所以,中医一个很重要的诊断方法就是从脉入手。当然,如果有人能像扁鹊那样望而知之,那这个脉可以不那么重要。你一望便知道他的阴阳。但是,这一点我们恐怕很难做到,那我们就只能依靠脉来鉴别阴阳。

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阳气亏损比较严重的,应该经常艾灸关元、归来、命门及肾俞

常常听人提到要补阳,壮阳,扶阳,那么究竟什么是阳气呢,和肾气是一样的吗?对我们有什么作用呢?我们为什么要补充阳气呢?

首先我们应先知道何为气?气是构成世界物质的本源,人体的气充斥于全身无处不在,按分布及特点不同,可分为元气,宗气,营气,卫气,中气五气,这些统称阳气。

阳气释义

在几千年的道医文化中,阴是指人的身体,阳是指人体具有的能量。人的一生就是一个阳气衰减的过程。

古人云:有形之躯壳,皆是一团死机,全赖这一团真气运用于中,而死机遂成生机;人身立命就是一个火字,真气命根也,火种也,人活一口气,即此真气也。

阳气就是真气,储藏在肾里,也就是我们所说的元气,常说的元气大伤,即是伤了阳气。黄帝内经中讲“阳化气,阴成形。”阳化成身体所需的能量,阴形成看得见摸得着的身体。如果身体没有了阳气,就成了一幅空的躯壳,就会死亡。

《黄帝内经­·素问》里说:“阳者卫外而为固也”,就是指人体有抵御外邪的能力,这种能力就是阳气。

古人把阳气比作天空与太阳的关系,如果天空没有太阳,那么大地都是黑暗不明的,万物也不能生长。所以天地的运行,必须要有太阳。而人身的阳气要调和才能巩固它的防护功能,不然就会招致病邪的侵入。《黄帝内经》说:“阳气者,若天与日,失其所,则折寿而不彰。”所以,养护阳气是养生治病之本。

人之生长壮老,皆由阳气为之主:精血津液之生成,皆由阳气为之化。“阳强则寿,阳衰则夭”,所以,阳气决定生长。

阳气,就功能与形态来说,阳气指功能;就脏腑机能来说,指六腑之气;就营卫之气来说,指卫气;就运动的方向和性质来说,则行于外表的、向上的、亢盛的、增强的、轻清的为阳气。“阳气者,精则养神,柔则养筋。”

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阳气来源

阳气来源有二:一为先天性的,来自于父亲和母亲,二为后天性,主要从食物中吸收的水谷精气转化而来。而人的正常机体运转、工作、运动、性生活、情绪波动、适应气温变化、修复创伤等各项活动都是需要消耗阳气的。

阳气是人体物质代谢和生理功能的原动力,是人体生殖、生长、发育、衰老和死亡的决定因素。人的正常生存需要阳气支持,所谓“得阳者生,失阳者亡”。“阳气”越充足,人体越强壮。

阳气不足,人就会生病。阳气完全耗尽,人就会死亡。它具有温养全身组织、维护脏腑功能的作用。阳气虚就会出现生理活动减弱和衰退,导致身体御寒能力下降。《内经·灵枢》上称:“人到四十,阳气不足。损与日至。”意思是随着年龄的增长,人的阳气会逐渐亏耗。

保阳气,益阴精。保养阳气和补益阴精,这是中医养生康复学的一条重要原则。万物之生由乎阳,万物之死亦由乎阳。人之生长壮老,皆由阳气为之主:精血津液之生成,皆由阳气为之化:所以,“阳强则寿,阳衰则夭”,养生必须养阳。但善养生者,又必须宝其精。因为精盈则气盛,气盛则神全,神全则身健。

首先,阳气是生命的根本。

对于阳气亏损比较严重的,应该经常艾灸关元、归来、命门及肾俞。在我国与世界卫生组织合作的中医治未病项目中,艾灸扶阳对亚健康人群的预防与治疗,取得了明显效果。

特别是对于阳气不足,引起的一系列亚健康状态,实验证明,艾灸对于阳气的亏损是有疗效的,扶阳”的“扶”字,清.阮元解释为:《助也》、“护也”、“治也”,意指“扶”有帮助、保护、调节治理之义。而“扶阳”一词本身就具有宣通、保护、温助、调理阳气,从而使人体阳气宣通、强盛之含义。

现代人由于工作及生活的严重压力,或其自身所有的不良嗜好,常常会出现浑身无力,精神疲乏,失眠健忘,脾气暴躁等亚健康症状,甚至有的女性不到四十便提前进入更年期,这些疾病都是由于阳气消耗过度所致。那么阳气是怎么被消耗掉的呢,由于运动,思考,劳累,精神损耗等因素,都在不知不觉中一点点的消耗我们的阳气,当阳气透支的时候,生命也就画上了句号。

疾病原因

阳气不足的原因即在于人体消耗的阳气超过了补充的阳气量,致使人体阳气总量低于维持正常运转所需。

临床症状

阳气不足最直接的表现为身体不能维持恒温,常态下表现为基础体温下降,致使气血运行速度变慢,机体物质代谢和生理功能下降,一些病理产物(如痰饮、瘀血、结石等)及外来物质(如风、寒、湿气等)不能及时排出而瘀积成疾。如果阳气稍有不足,人体功能基本能维持,但人会有肥胖、手脚冰凉、腰酸背痛等各种不适症状。

如果阳气不足程度加剧,人体基础体温就会进一步下降,在一些原有旧疾、旧伤或先天缺陷处瘀积堵塞现象更为严重,致使这些部位生理功能明显失常,因其堵塞部位与程度的不一样而外在突出表现为某一部位的病变。癌症只是堵塞程度更为严重。如肝炎、肝硬化、肝癌患者脉象上均显示肝部有堵塞,只是堵塞程度逐次加深。癌症则可称为“寒凝重症。”

治疗原则

阳气不足导致的寒凝诸症的治疗之本则在于“补充阳气,驱除阴邪”,提升五脏六腑的运化功能,增强机体的自愈能力,待到阳气充足,六脉平和,自然诸病已愈,身体素质全面恢复。

扶阳固本

艾灸调理阳气的特点:宣通是针对阳气被郁,运行不畅而言,温补是针对阳气虚损,失于温壮而言,二者是有区别的,但临床病变错综复杂,运行不畅,和失于温壮往往是阳气病变的两个方面。

故治疗中,当重视两方面共同互济的联系,宣通阳气使阳气运行宣畅,可以促进和发挥阳气的功能,如辛温解表祛邪,宣畅阳气,使卫阳营阴得以和调;温壮阳气也可以促进阳气的活动力,如温阳化气,气化水行,使阳气畅旺。

阳气对人体起到温薰脏腑,濡养筋骨的作用,就如阳光普照万物,植物才能进行光合作用,茁壮成长。阳气是维持人体生命正常代谢所具备的能量,人一生的阳气是由弱变强再逐渐衰减枯竭的一个过程。阳气足则体健,阳气弱则体衰,阳气竭则身亡。因此,阳气决定着人的健康与生命。

补阳,壮阳就是为顺应自然规律,补充日常消耗的阳气,使身体达到一个阴阳平衡的状态,人的生命力才能更加旺盛。艾灸所用的艾草是一种纯阳性植物,经过燃烧后,作用力更强,是补充阳气,延年益寿的最佳捷径。

艾灸是补充人体阳气最有效的方法。

宋代的著名医学家窦材把自己喻为扁鹊再生,他的医书《扁鹊心书》中重点倡导的就是扶阳。他认为自古扶阳有三法:第一为灼艾,第二为丹药,第三为附子。灼艾就是艾灸。

艾灸用的原料是艾草制成的。艾草,又名冰台,产于山的阳面,充分的吸取太阳的精华,是一种纯阳植物。艾草含有多种矿物质、维生素、蛋白质、脂肪、水、抗衰老抗癌的硒和大量的药理成份。有消炎化瘀、平喘化咳、镇静之功效。艾叶中含有苦艾醇、苦艾酮,具有解热、止血、镇痛、兴奋中枢神经的作用。

艾灸就是通过烟熏火灼把艾草的药力通过穴位经络带到人体的病痛之处,祛除病邪的方法。艾灸是中医五大主流疗法中唯一具有物理和药理综合疗效的学科。艾灸过程中释放的近红外线比远红外线的调节作用更强,能将艾烟中的有效成份输送到脏腑和病灶之处。所以艾灸是古今公认的补充阳气最有效的方法。

除了通过艾灸来补充阳气,在饮食和生活上也有很多地方值得注意!

生活保健
黄河教授经验:散步、慢跑都属于“慢运动”,可以让全身的经络、气血、骨骼、肌肉动起来,有助于调节五脏六腑的功能,促进新陈代谢。但是,运动要注意适量,不要超过自己身体的承受能力,青壮年运动量可大一些,老年人适合散步、慢跑、太极拳、自我按摩等慢运动。

要保持精力旺盛,首要条件就是生活要有规律。最好在晚上12点之前入睡,晚上23点到午夜1点,也就是子时,是人体阴阳交接的时候。这个时候是一天中阴气最盛、阳气最弱的时候。

《黄帝内经》说:“阳气尽则卧,阴气尽则寐”。所以,这个时候是睡眠的最好时间。也就是要学会顺应大自然昼夜的阴阳变化,如果继续熬夜,或过了午夜1点入睡,就会耗损人体的阳气,第二天阳气不足,就打不起精神了。即使你睡到第二天10时都补不过来。

80%的现代人都阳气不足——万病皆损于一元阳气,如何扶阳固本呢?在生活中,我们要改变我们一些伤阳气的生活习惯,在夏天经常喝冰镇饮料,吹空调,露宿雨淋,很容易患伤阳之病,比如感冒、拉肚子、风湿等。同样的道理,如果在冬天衣着太厚,久居温室,大汗淋漓或过用辛热,多患伤阴之病,如咽喉肿痛、食欲不振、腹胀等,应该要多吃一些温补的食物,比如,牛肉、羊肉、虾、泥鳅、黄鳝。

人体健康的“三阳开泰”

“三阳开泰”出自《易经》六十四卦之中的泰卦。古人发现冬至那天白昼最短,往后白昼渐长,故认为冬至是”一阳生”,十二月是”二阳生”,正月则是”三阳开泰”。”三阳”表示阴气渐去阳气始生,冬去春来,万物复苏。”开泰”则表示吉祥亨通,有好运即将降临之意。人体的阳气升发也有类似的渐变过程,将其称为人体健康的”三阳开泰”,即动则升阳、善能升阳、喜能升阳。

1
动则升阳

三国时期的名医华佗创编的《五禽戏》里面有一句至理名言:”动摇则谷气消,血脉流通,病不得生”,人只要动一动,摇一摇,那么就气血流通,百病不生了。学五禽戏的人都知道这句话,却不知道这句话的真正含义。动摇正是对动则升阳最好的诠释。

现代社会是以脑力劳动为主体的,人们大多动摇的是精神,不动的是身体。上班时坐在办公室里,出门就坐车,回家又坐在沙发上看半宿电视,一天绝大多数时间都是坐着的,不动则阳气不得升发,气血都瘀滞了,长此以往身体怎能不病呢?动摇精神损耗的是我们的阳气,动摇身体则能升发阳气,所以要想身体健康,就一定得先让身体动起来。

道医有一句话:”阳光普照,阴霾自散。”如果你体内阳气严重的不足,阴气过盛,可以选择一些柔和舒缓的传统功法,如养生桩、五禽戏、八段锦、太极拳等。运动有一个标准,就是以心脏不剧烈跳动,身体微微出汗发热为宜,运动过度反而会伤害身体。

2
善能升阳

道家名著《太上感应篇》中对”善”作了三个定义:第一是语善;第二是视善,第三是行善。

“语善”就是要求我们说一些鼓励人、激励人、柔和的话,比如说这个孩子今年考试成绩不理想,没考好孩子也不高兴,如果是会教育孩子的家长,他一定不会去埋怨孩子,而是用激励、鼓励的方式,让孩子的信心建立起来,聪明的小孩都是夸大的,这样孩子才会越来越聪明。

事实上,现实中很多有成就的人,大都是在父母和亲朋好友的夸奖中长大的,在这种肯定的阳性语言激励下,人的阳气就会持续得到升发,身心都会得到平衡的发展。古人讲,”良言一句三冬暖”,讲的就是语善升阳的道理。

视善,就是要让眼睛经常去看美好的事物。风景秀丽的名山大川,是天地间的大美,所以久居尘世的人要经常出去看看,以此养目调心。亲近大自然的过程,也是与天地交换能量,升发阳气的过程。

说到视善,德国有一位科学家做了一个实验,结果证明男人看漂亮女人,如果每天看上5分钟,可以延长10年的寿命,女人看帅哥也可以延长寿命。所以,逛街时看看过往的美女、帅哥,养养眼,我想,这也是一种视善吧。

眼睛是心灵的窗口,眼睛所见之物反过来也会影响心灵,生活中不要总看到社会、人生的阴暗面,凡事要多看阳光的、积极的一面。如此,不用刻意追求,也能做到随处视善了。

那什么是行善呢?在日常生活当中,也能看到很多这方面的例子。比如一个人用车拉着一车煤或者其他货物,爬高坡时上不去了,这时你帮他推一把,过了这个坡以后,拉车的人会回头道一声谢谢。这个时候你心里是什么感觉呢?一定会感觉到暖暖的,这种暖就是阳气升发的表现。日常生活中帮助他人的行为其实都是行善。

《礼记?礼运篇》曰:”大道之行也,天下为公”,不管是语善、视善还是行善,都是在讲做人做事要去掉私欲,内心光明磊落,多为他人着想,那种累在身暖在心的感受,也是能延年祛病的。

3
喜则升阳

古人说,喜则阳气生。生活当中应该是很好做到的,多想一些高兴的事情,看一些欢快的娱乐节目,听自己喜欢的歌曲,读自己喜欢的书,业余时间多做自己喜欢的事,都可以使人的阳气升发。

喜能升阳,最典型的应用就是”冲喜”。按照道家医学的观点,冲喜是很高明的升阳方法,冲喜冲掉的是身体的邪气,换回的是正气,过去的人用办喜事的方法来治病或者转运。久病或长年身体不好的人,有意地操办些喜事,对病情是很有帮助的。实际上冲喜是借助外在的环境改变病人的身心状态。

只生欢喜不生愁的人,在古代就被称为神仙。喜是人生的一种大境界,能够保持一颗欢喜心,对身体的滋养是比吃什么灵丹妙药都管用的。

命运是每个人穷其一生都想去把握和改变的事。从医学的角度来看,命运赋予了每个人更加切实可把握的意义。阳气旺盛不仅不会受到病邪侵害,还能使人的精神平和愉悦,心想事成。所以,升发阳气还是改变命运的最好方法。

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Zhejiang pharmaceutical company is urgent to produce the children with leukemia life-saving medicine

On November 24 in the evening, the cold winter rain falling in the sky, is located in deqing county of zhejiang province in the north of zhejiang pharmaceutical co., LTD., two workers red with cold hands, still stepping hurried footsteps, to run back and forth in the warehouse and outdoor.
15, 000 bottles of urgently produced leukaemia children’s life-saving drug “mercaptopurine tablets”, which were quickly moved to a container truck, were immediately distributed to the national distribution and sent to pharmaceutical companies and hospitals throughout the week.

It is reported that “mercaptopurine tablet” is a necessary medicine for treating children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, throughout the whole treatment process.
In particular, if you stop taking the drug for about a year or more, it will greatly affect the long-term survival of the child.

However, due to the need for specialized plant and equipment for the production of “mercaptopurine tablets”, limited market demand and large production costs, many manufacturers with corresponding production qualifications have opted out of production.
“Drug shortages” have been developed in many parts of the country, and some places have been broken for five months in a row.

November 20, the state council premier li keqiang have made important instructions, asked relevant departments to “care”, “center”, “practical strengthen domestic cheap medicine production supply security”.
On the 21st, the first batch of 15, 000 bottles of “mercaptopurine” was urgently produced in zhejiang province, and it was sent to all parts of the country.

“The ‘mercaptopurine tablet’ is a small variety, and the company produces one or two batches of batches, 50,000 bottles of market per year, and sales of about 1.5 million yuan account for only about 2 percent of total company sales.”
The company deputy general manager said, “the same specification of ‘mercaptopurine tablets’, the import price is above 500 yuan, while ours is less than 100 yuan.”

The reporter understands, “mercaptopurine piece” because of its special pharmacological effects, according to the new GMP requirements, need in the independent production workshop production, north of pharmaceutical industry in the new stage has suspended the variety in production.
As the time of production has been prolonged, the frequency of drug calls has increased.

“The families of the patients are asking us with anxiety.”
“Children with leukaemia have a limited selection of drugs, and mercaptopurine is really a lifesaving drug.”
The state army said that companies should not patronize profits and assume social responsibility.
Some drugs, even at a loss, must be kept in production.

In march of this year, zhejiang province decided to invest about 6 million yuan to build a dedicated workshop for the production of ‘mercaptopurine tablets’ and to enable new production lines.
On November 17, 2017, the company successfully obtained the GMP certificate issued by zhejiang food and drug administration.

It is reported that our country through its approval to allow in the production of “mercaptopurine piece” drug firms are six, and the north of zhejiang pharmaceutical co., LTD. Is currently the only company is producing “mercaptopurine piece” pharmaceutical companies.

“The company is seeking to supply the country’s pharmaceutical companies and hospitals this week.
Enterprises will also arrange production according to market conditions to ensure the normal supply in China.
“Said the soldier.

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obedience to them performed

Lima is the metropolitan, and the richest city of South America. Under
the Spanish regime it has been the residence of forty-three Viceroys,
counting from Don Francisco Pizarro to the present Don Jose de la Serna,
who abandoned the capital in 1821, when the patriot army entered. It
also enumerates nineteen archbishops, from Don Fray Geronimo de Loaisa,
who arrived in 1540, to Don Bartolome Maria de las Heras, who was
compelled by General San Martin to retire in 1821.

In the list of Viceroys we find four grandees of Spain, two titled
princes, one archbishop, one bishop, and three licentiates; the rest
were military officers, but none of them Americans. Among the
archbishops is Saint Thoribio de Mogroviejo, who was presented in 1578,
and in the exercise of his ecclesiastical duties was so unremitting,
that he visited his extensive diocese three times, and confirmed upwards
of a million of persons, one of whom was Saint Rose of Lima. He died in
1606, and was canonized by Benedict XIII. in 1727.

The Viceroyalty of Peru formerly extended from the south confines of
Mexico to those of Chile, including all the Spanish possessions in South
America, and what the Spaniards call meridional America. The Viceroyalty
of Santa Fe de Bogotá was separated from Peru, and established in 1718;
that of Buenos Ayres in 1777.

The titles of the Viceroy of Peru were His Excellency Don —-, Viceroy
and Captain-general of Peru, President of the Royal Audience,
Superintendent Subdelegate of the Royal Finances, Posts and
Temporalities, Director-general of the Mining Tribunal, Governor of
Callao, Royal Vice-patron, &c.

As Viceroy he was the immediate representative of the King, and
answerable to him alone as President of the Council of Indies, _Consejo
de Indias_: to which tribunal all complaints and appeals were directed,
as well as the residential reports. Petitions of every description were
presented directed or addressed to him, for the despatch of which he was
assisted by a legal adviser, called _asesor general_, whose written
report was generally confirmed by the sub-signature of the Viceroy, but
from these there was an appeal to the Royal Audience. It has been the
custom of the Viceroys to appoint an hour in the morning, and another in
the afternoon, for receiving personally from the hands of the
petitioners papers addressed to them; but the secretary’s office was
always open for such documents.

In his quality of Captain-general he was charged with all political
affairs, those relating to fortification, and the defence of the country
by land and sea, for which purpose the whole of the military and naval
departments were subject to his immediate orders; but in cases of
emergency he usually called a _junta de guerra_, council of war. All
courts martial were held by his orders, and their sentences required his
confirmation before they were put in execution, but if he chose he could
refer the whole to the revision of the _consejo de guerra permanente_,
in Spain.

In the capacity of President of the Royal Audience the Viceroy assisted
at the sittings whenever he pleased, and entered at any hour which he
thought proper during a session. When he proposed to assist in state, he
announced his intention, and a deputation of the judges attended him
from his palace to the hall; on his arrival at the door the porter
called aloud, the president! when all the attorneys, advocates and
others met and conducted him to his chair; the judges continued standing
until he was seated and nodded permission for them to resume their
seats. The session being finished, all the members of the audience,
regent, judges, _oidores_, and fiscal, accompanied him to the door of
his apartment in the palace, the regent walking on his left, and the
other members preceding him two and two. The presidency of the audience
was merely honorary, as the president had neither a deliberative nor a
consulting voice, but all sentences of the tribunal must have had his
signature, which may be called the _veto_, before they could be put in
execution. On the arrival of any new laws, royal ordinances, or
schedules, the Viceroy was summoned by the tribunal to the hall of
accords, _sala de acuerda_, where they were presented to him, and the
ceremony of obedience to them performed by his kissing the King’s
signature and then laying the paper on his head, which act was recorded
by the _escribano de camara_.

The Viceroy, as President of the Royal Audience made a private report
annually to the King, through the Council of Indies, of the public and
even of the private characters of the members of the tribunal. He could
also direct secret inquiries respecting any member whose conduct might
have excited suspicion.

All presidents of audiences, as well as the members, were forbidden to
marry within the boundaries of their jurisdiction without the express
permission of the King; they were likewise prohibited all commercial
concerns, possession of personal property, becoming godfathers to
infants, and even visiting any private family. The Marquis of Aviles,
Viceroy of Lima, was, before his appointment, married to a native of
Lima, but he was never known to visit any of her relatives; however,
Abascal, Marquis de la Concordia, judging it to be a prudent and
conciliatory measure to break through this restriction during the
unquiet times of his government, visited different families, and
attended at several public feasts, giving others in return.

At the expiration of five years, the term for which viceroys, governors,
&c. were appointed, and on the arrival of a successor, a commissioner,
generally a judge, was nominated by the King, to take what was termed
_la residencia_. Six months were allowed for all persons who considered
themselves aggrieved to lay before this commissioner a full statement of
their case, and at the termination of the six months the whole of the
papers which had been presented were forwarded to the Council of Indies
for the inspection of that tribunal.

As Superintendent Subdelegate merely placed the Viceroy above all the
tribunals, he had no other authority over them, except, indeed, the
nomination of the higher officers, who had afterwards to obtain a
confirmation from the King; or of confirming the lower officers
nominated by their superior ones. It may be considered an honorary
distinction, except that of royal financier, as such he presided
quarterly at the general passing of accounts and inspection of
treasures.

As Royal Vice-patron all collated benefices required his confirmation.
The Archbishop proposed to him three individuals, and it generally
happened that the first on the list received the confirmation; but this
was optional in the Vice-patron, who could confirm any one of those whom
he chose. This prerogative was often the cause of serious disputes
between the Viceroy and the Archbishop. As Governor-general of Callao,
he visited its fortifications twice a year, for which he had an
additional sum of five hundred dollars for each visit. His whole salary
amounted to sixty-one thousand dollars.

The Royal Audience of Lima was established in 1541, and composed of a
President, Regent, eight Oidores or Members, two Fiscals, (one civil,
the other criminal) _Relatores_, Reporters, _Escribanos_, Scriveners or
Recorders, Porters, and an _Alguacil Mayor_, also two _Alcaldes de
Corte_. The official costume of the regent and members was a black under
dress with white laced cuffs over those of the coat, a black robe or
cloak with a cape about three quarters of a yard square, generally of
velvet, called the toga; and a collar or ruff having two corners in
front; this was black and covered with white lace or cambric: a small
trencher cap, carried in their hands, completed their costume. When
divested of their robes they bore a gold-headed cane or walking-stick
with large black silk tassels and cord, which was the insignia of a
magistrate, or of any one in command, and called the _baton_.

The sessions of the audience were held every day, excepting holidays,
from nine o’clock in the morning till twelve; and here all cases both
civil and criminal were tried, either by the whole of the members or by
committees, and there was no appeal, except in some few cases, to the
Consejo de Indias. The audience was a court of appeal from any other
authority, even from the ecclesiastical courts, by a _recurso de
fuersa_; but all its sentences required the signature of the Viceroy or
President; for the obtaining of which, an escribano de camara waited on
his excellency every day with all those papers that had received the
signatures of the audience and required to be signed by him. Papers
addressed to the audience were headed with _mui poderoso señor_, most
potent lord; and the title of the members in session was highness,
_altesa_, individually that of lordship, _senoria_.

The Cabildo of Lima had two _Alcaldes Ordinarios_, twelve _Regidores_, a
_Sindico Procurador_, a Secretary, an _Alguacil Mayor_ and a legal
Advisor called the _Asesor_. The Cabildo appointed out of its own
members a Justice of Police, _Jues de Policia_; a _Jues de Aguas_, who
decided in all questions respecting the water-works belonging to the
city and suburbs; also a _Fiel Egecutor_, for examining weights and
measures. The Royal Ensign, _Alferes Real_ was another member _de
oficio_, appointed by the King, who held in his possession the royal
standard, (the same that was brought by Pizarro) which was carried by
the alferes real, accompanied by the Viceroy, a deputation from the
audience, another from the Cabildo, including the two alcaldes, and
others from the different corporate bodies, in solemn procession
through some of the principal streets of the city, on the 8th of
January, being the anniversary of the foundation of Lima. The title of
alferes real was hereditary in the family of the Count of Monte Mar, y
Monte Blanco.

The Viceroy was President of the Cabildo. The alcaldes had cognizance in
all causes cognizable by governors; their sentences had the same force,
and were carried by appeal to the audience.

The forms of law in the Spanish tribunals were very complicated, tedious
and expensive. The escribano wrote down all declarations, accusations,
and confessions, and the courts decided on the merits of the case
according to what was read to them by the _relator_ from the writings
presented; the client, if in prison, not being admitted to hear his own
cause. The tribunals, or judges very reluctantly deprived a man of his
life, but they had no regard to his personal liberty; even a supposition
of criminality was sufficient to incarcerate an individual, perhaps for
years, during which he had not the power to prove himself innocent. From
the facility of imprisonment it was not considered a disgrace, and a
prisoner often received visits from his friends in a jail, which he
returned as a matter of politeness when liberated. I saw prisoners here
who had been incarcerated for twenty years, some for murder; their
causes were not then and probably never would be finished till death
stepped in.

The Viceroy visited all the prisons on the Friday before Easter, and two
days before Christmas, when he discharged some persons who were confined
for petty crimes. A surgeon and one of the _alcaldes_ visited the
prisons every day, which visits produced much good; the alcalde _de
corte_ examined their food two or three times a week, and attended to
any complaints respecting the internal arrangements made by the
_alcaide_, jailor.

Of the military, not only those who were in actual service, but the
militia, and persons who had held military rank, and had retired, were
tried by their particular laws, or court martials. This exemption was
called _fuero_, but its enjoyment was not equally extended. The private,
the corporal, and the serjeant might be tried, condemned and executed,
but the sentence of an officer required the confirmation of the
Captain-general, and in some cases the approbation of the King.

The Roman Catholic religion was established here in the same manner as
in all the Spanish dominions, all sectaries being excluded. The
inexorable tribunal for the protection of the former, and for the
persecution of the latter, held its sessions in Lima, and was one of the
three instituted in South America, the other two being at Mexico and
Carthagena.

Much has been written at different times respecting this _Tribunal de la
Fe_, tribunal of faith, and much more has been said about it, in
opposition to the old Spanish adage, _de Rey e Inquisicion–chiton_, of
the King and the Inquisition–not a word. The primitive institution was
entirely confined to adjudge matters strictly heretical, but it soon
assumed cognizance of civil and political affairs, becoming at the same
time the stay of the altar, and the prop of the throne.

All the sessions of the Inquisition being inaccessible, and the persons
tried, consulted, or called in as evidence having been sworn to keep
secret every thing which they should hear, see, or say, has, in a great
measure, deprived the public of any knowledge respecting what transpired
in its mysterious proceedings.

This tribunal could condemn to fine, confiscation, banishment, or the
flames. Since its erection in 1570, not fewer than forty individuals
have been sentenced to the latter punishment, from which one hundred and
twenty have escaped by recantation. The last who suffered was a female
of the name of Castro, a native of Toledo, in Spain. She was burnt in
the year 1761. Formerly the portraits of those unfortunate individuals
who had been burnt were hung up, with the names annexed, in the passage
leading from the cathedral to the Sagrario, where also the names of
those who had recanted were exposed, having a large red cross on the
pannel, but no portrait. In the year 1812, as one of the results of the
promulgation of the constitution, this revolting exhibition was removed.

The tribunal was composed of three Inquisitors and two secretaries,
called of despatch and of secret, _del despacho y del secreto_;
_alguasiles_, or bailiffs, porters, brothers of punishment, being lay
brothers of the order of Dominicans, whose duty it was to attend when
requested, and to inflict corporal punishment on the unhappy victims of
persecution. There were also brothers of charity, of the Hospitallery
order of Saint Juan de Dios, to whom the care of the sick was confided;
and both were sworn not to divulge what they had done or seen. Besides
these, a great number of commissaries were appointed by the inquisitors,
in the principal towns within their jurisdiction, for the purpose of
furnishing them with information on every matter denounced; also of
forwarding accusations, processes, and persons accused, to the
tribunal. Qualifiers were elected, whose duty it was to spy out whatever
might appear to them offensive to religion, in books, prints or images;
they likewise reported to the tribunal their opinion of new
publications. These were wretches worse than slander, for not even the
secrets of the grave could escape them!

All books, before they were offered for sale, must have had a permit
from the Inquisition; and if they were contained in the published list
of prohibited works, the possessor was obliged to go to a _calificador_,
qualifier, and deliver them to him; and should a person have known that
another had such books in his possession, it was his duty to denounce
the individual, whose house, through this circumstance, was subject to a
visit from those holy men. When such books were found, the owner became
amenable to any punishment which these arbitrary priests might think
proper to inflict. The punishment was generally a fine, which was of the
greatest utility to the judges, because all the salaries were paid out
of fines and confiscations, and a stipend arising from a canonry in each
cathedral within their jurisdiction. It was often said by the people,
that some books were prohibited because they were bad; others were bad,
because they were prohibited.

The inquisitors were secular priests, and distinguished from the others
by wearing a pale blue silk cuff, buttoned over that of the coat. They
were addressed as lords spiritual, and when speaking, although
individually, used the plural pronoun _we_.

The inquisitorial power was never exercised over the Indians or negroes,
who were considered in the class of neophytes; but every other
individual, including the viceroy, archbishop, judges, prebends, &c. was
subject to its almost omnipotent authority.

Lima was the see of a bishop from 1539 to 1541, when it was created an
archbishopric by Paul IV., being a suffragan to the mitre of Seville
till the year 1571. It was afterwards erected into a metropolitan, and
has for suffragans the bishops of

Panamá erected in 1533
Cuzco ” 1534
Quito ” 1545
Santiago de Chile ” 1561
Conception de Chile ” 1564
Truxillo ” 1577
Guamanga ” 1611
Arequipa ” 1611
Cuenca ” 1786
Maynas ” 1806

The two bulls of Alexander VI. of 1493 and 1501 gave to Ferdinand and
Isabella the entire possession of those countries discovered, and that
might from time to time be discovered by them and their successors, in
America; and the pope, being _infallible_ in his decrees, these bulls
deprived the see of Rome of all direct influence in the Spanish
colonies, and gave to the Kings of Spain the right of repulsing any
jurisdiction which the popes might attempt to exercise there. Thus any
decree, mandate, bull, or commission from the pope required the sanction
of royal approbation before it was valid in this country; and even for
the prevention of what were termed reserved cases, the Kings took care
to obtain extensive privileges for the archbishops and bishops. All
briefs, bulls, dispensations, indulgences, and other pontifical acts
were sent from Rome to the King; and the Council of Indies had the
exclusive examination, admission or rejection of them, as they might
consider them advantageous or injurious to the royal prerogative in the
colonies.

The right of patronage belonged exclusively to the King; he had the
presentation to all archbishoprics and bishoprics, and every other
office even to the lowest was filled by the royal will. The presentation
to vicarages, curacies, chaplainries, &c. was delegated to the Viceroy,
as Vice-patron; and if any dispute should arise respecting the due
exercise of this delegated authority, it was carried before the Council
of Indies, which was authorized to regulate any such controversies. This
entirely deprived the pope of all interfering power; indeed he enjoyed
no other right than that of granting bulls, briefs, &c. when they were
requested, and of deciding in cases of conscience, when they were
submitted to him by the Council of Indies.

All bishops and other beneficed priests rendered to the King, as patron,
the entire rent of their benefice for one year; it was called the
_annata_, and was paid in six annual instalments. The revenue of the
mitres was derived from the tithes; two ninths of which belonged to the
King, one fourth to the mitre and the remainder was applied to the other
ministers of the gospel, both of the choir and collated benefices. For
the security of the royal privileges, every bishop made oath, before he
took possession of his see, that he would respect the royal patronage,
and never oppose the exercise of its rights.

The archbishop had his ecclesiastical tribunal, and so had all bishops
in the Spanish colonies. It was composed of himself, as president, the
fiscal, and provisor vicar general. All ordinary sentences were given by
the provisor, the president’s signature being subjoined; but all
important cases were judged by the archbishop.

The jurisdiction of this tribunal embraced all causes spiritual, such
as orders, marriages, divorces, legitimations, pious legacies,
monastical portions or dowries, with the defence and preservation of the
immunities of the church, and contentious disputes between the members
of the church, as well as those preferred by laymen against priests. All
who had received holy orders enjoyed the _fuero ecclesiastico_, and all
criminal complaints against the clergy must be laid before the
ecclesiastical tribunal, but there was an appeal to the royal audience,
as has been mentioned, by a _recurso de fuersa_.

Suits instituted in an ecclesiastical court were equally as tedious and
expensive as those of a secular one.

Five provincial councils have been held here for the regulation of
church discipline. The two first were held in 1551 and 1567 by Don Fray
Geronimo de Loaisa, and the other three in 1582, 1591, and 1601, by
Saint Thoribio de Mogroviejo.

The provincial of each monastic order was the prelate, or head of the
order; he judged, in the first instance, of any misdemeanour committed
by the individuals wearing the habit; he also inflicted corporal as well
as spiritual punishments; besides ordering temporal privations, on
which account monasteries were not subject to the ordinary.

The chapter, or _cabildo ecclesiastico_, of Lima had a dean, a subdean,
a magisterial canon, a doctoral, a penitentiary and a treasurer; six
prebendaries, four canons, six demi-proporcionaries, _medio racioneros_,
and for the service of the choir four royal chaplains, two choral
chaplains, a master of ceremonies, besides chaunters, musicians,
_monacillos_, who served at the altar; porters, beadles, &c. The
prebendaries and canons were distinguished from other clergymen by
wearing white lace or cambric cuffs.

In the Spanish colonies the care of souls was confided to rectoral
curates, who officiated in parishes where the population was principally
Spanish or white creoles; they received a stipend out of the tithes, and
from their parishioners they were entitled to the firstlings,
_primicias_, which consisted of one bushel of grain of each description,
harvested by each separate individual, if the quantity harvested
exceeded seven bushels; but no more than one was exacted, however great
the quantity of grain might be. For animals and fruits they generally
compounded with their parishioners. They were also paid for baptisms,
marriages and funerals; besides which they had perquisites arising from
church feasts, masses, &c.

The doctrinal curates were those destined to towns or parishes the
population of which was composed chiefly of indians; they had fewer
perquisites, and received nothing for baptisms, marriages, or funerals,
but a sum established by the synod, which was very small. They had
however a stipend assigned them by the King, which they got from the
treasury: it seldom exceeded 500 dollars.

The missionaries enjoyed curial and apostolical privileges in their
villages, or reductions; they were of the order of Franciscans, who at
the extinction of the Jesuits filled all the missions vacated by this
death-blow to the advancement of Christianity among the unchristianized
tribes of indians in South America.

The election of curates took place about every four years, and was
called the _concurso_, at which time all those possessed of benefices,
and who wished to be removed, presented themselves; having first
obtained permission from the archbishop, and left another clergyman in
charge of their parish. The archbishop and four _examinadores_ examined
them in Latin and theological points, and either approved or reproved
them. If the former, an allegation of merits and services was presented,
without any expression of inclination to any particular parish, and
after all the examinations were ended the archbishop nominated three
individuals to each of the third class or richest livings. These
nominations were forwarded to the Vice-patron, who confirmed one of each
three, and presented him with the benefice, returning immediately the
two remaining ones. Out of these, other nominations were made for the
second class, and then sent for confirmation. The returns furnished
names for the first or lowest class. The archbishop could appoint, on
the death of a curate, any priest to fill the vacancy pro tempore
without the confirmation of the Vice-patron.

All persons who received holy orders must possess a sufficient _congrua_
to support them decently, if not, they were ordained by a title of
adscription, by which the archbishop could attach them to any curacy as
assistants or coadjutors.

No curate or priest could enjoy two livings or benefices, nor absent
himself under any pretence from the one he held without an express
permission from the vicar-general; none could appear as evidence in
cases where there was a possibility of the culprits being sentenced to
death, and they were expressly prohibited from interfering, either
directly or indirectly, as magistrates. It is certainly to be regretted,
that in all parts of the world, I mean the Christian world, the same
laws are not established; for what ought to be more dear to a shepherd
than his flock; but alas! many take charge of it for the sake of the
fleece, and for that only.

Some of the popes, imagining in their ardour of usurpation, that they
should increase the sanctity of the Church by elevating it above the
reach of the law, barred its doors against the civil magistracy, and
made it the refuge of outlaws; thus mistaking pity for piety, Christian
forgiveness for religious protection: hence the temple was opened to the
murderer, his hands still reeking with the blood of his fellow citizen,
and closed against the minister of justice, whose duty it was to avenge
the crime; as if God had established his church for the protection of
vices in this world, which he has threatened with eternal punishment in
the next.

Spain, either through fear or as the bigot of ancient customs, maintains
her asylums on the plan to which Charlemagne reduced them in France in
the eighth century. By the request of the King a bull was issued, dated
12th Sept. 1772, limiting the place of immunity throughout the Spanish
dominions to one church in each smaller town, and to two in large
cities; the Sagrario and San Larazo enjoyed this privilege in Lima.

The immunity of the church protected a man who had killed another by
chance or in his own defence; but if he had been guilty of murder, or
had maliciously wounded a person so as to cause his death, it delivered
him over to the civil authorities at their request. The commission of a
crime in the church or its dependencies precluded immunity, which was
also withheld from persons convicted of high treason, although they
might take refuge in a privileged church; from those suspected of
heresy; heretics; jews; forgers of royal or apostolic letters or
patents; the defrauders of any bank or public treasury; false coiners of
coin current in the country; violaters of churches, or destroyers of
church property; persons who escaped from prison, from the officers of
justice, from exile, public labours or the galleys; blasphemers;
sorcerers; the excommunicated; debtors and thieves.

Thus it appears, that immunity was available only in cases of
manslaughter; but if the person accused had been guilty of murder,
before it could be proved against him, he generally took care to make
his escape and elude the punishment. The same may be said of the greater
number of the instances to which immunity was denied; for few suffered,
like Joab, after having taken hold of the horns of the altar.

The other tribunals in Lima were _el Consulado_, or the Board of
Commerce, founded in 1613. It had a prior and two consuls, who decided
in all mercantile affairs; they had an _asesor_ or legal adviser,
secretary, notary and porters; the Tribunal of the Holy Crusade, founded
in 1574, for the promulgation of the pope’s bulls, and collection of
this part of the royal revenue; the Royal Treasury, established in 1607,
for the receipt of all treasure appertaining to the crown, and the
payment of all persons in the employ of the government; the Tribunal of
General Accompts; that of Temporalities, for recovering the value or
rents of the possessions and property of the ex Jesuits; and, lastly,
the Tribunal of the _Protomedicato_, for the examination of students in
medicine and surgery: it was composed of a president, a fiscal and two
examiners.

The system of taxation in the Spanish colonies was as complicated as
their law suits in the courts of justice, and the ingenuity of the
theory practised in the exchequer can only be equalled by the
resignation of the people to the practice. The _alcavala_ was the most
ancient and most productive tax in the colonies; it was granted by the
Cortes to the King of Spain, in 1342, to defray the expenses of the war
against the Moors. At that time it was rated at five per cent., but in
the year 1366 it was increased to ten per cent. The order for the
collection of this tax in Peru was issued in 1591; it was first fixed
here at two per cent., and afterwards increased, according to the
exigences of the state, and the submission of the people, to six and a
half per cent.

This tax was levied on every sale and resale of moveable and immoveable
property; all merchandize, manufactured produce, animals, buildings, in
fine, all kinds of property were liable to this impost the moment they
were brought into the market, and all contracts specified its payment.
Retail dealers generally compounded according to their stock and
presumed sale, and were compelled to abide by the composition.

Those indians who became subject to the law of conquest, that is, all
whose forefathers did not voluntarily resign themselves to the Spanish
authorities, and solicit a curate, without causing any expense to be
incurred in their discovery or subjection, paid an annual tribute from
the age of eighteen to fifty. This tribute varied very much in different
provinces; some paying seven dollars and a half a year, others only two
and a half. An indian might redeem his tribute by advancing a certain
sum, proportionate to his age and the annual tribute. The tax was
collected by the _subdelegados_, governors of districts, who were
allowed six per cent. on the sum gathered, according to the tribute
roll, which was renewed every five years by a commissioner called the
_visitador_. This direct tax was more irksome to the people than any
other, and caused much general discontent, although those who paid it
enjoyed privileges more than equal to the impost.

All metals paid to the King a fifth, for the collection of which proper
officers and offices were established. Gold in its native state was
carried to the royal foundry, _casa real de fundicion_, where it was
reduced to ingots, each of which was assayed and marked, its quality and
weight being specified; after which the fifth was paid, and then it was
offered for sale. Silver was also taken in its pure state, called
_piña_, and it was contraband to sell it until it had been melted, and
each bar marked in the same manner as the gold. Base metals were subject
to a similar impost, but reduced to bars by the miners, who afterwards
paid the fifth.

Titles paid an annual fine of five hundred dollars each to the King,
unless the person in possession redeemed it by paying ten thousand
dollars. This tax, although unproductive in some parts, was worthy of
attention in Lima, where there were sixty-three titled personages,
marquises, counts and viscounts.

All judicial proceedings in the different courts of justice, civil,
criminal, military and ecclesiastical; all agreements, testimonies, and
public acts, were required to be on stamped paper, according to a royal
order dated in 1638. It was stamped in Spain, bearing the date of the
two years for which it was to serve, or was considered to be in force;
after which term it was of no use. The surplus, if any, was cut through
the stamp, and sold as waste paper, and the court took care to supply
another stock for the two succeeding years. If the court neglected to do
this, the old paper was restamped by order of the Viceroy, bearing a fac
simile of his signature. There were four sorts of this paper, or rather
paper of four prices. That on which deeds and titles were written, or
permissions and pardons granted, cost six dollars the sheet; that used
for contracts, wills, conveyances and other deeds drawn up before a
notary, one dollar and a half; that on which every thing concerning a
course of law before the Viceroy or Audience was conducted, half a
dollar; and for writings presented by soldiers, slaves, paupers and
indians, the fourth class was used, and cost the sixteenth of a dollar
each sheet. The first sheet of the class required in any memorial or
document, according to the foregoing rules, was of that price, but the
remainder, if more were wanted, might be of the fourth class or lowest
price, or even of common writing paper.

Tobacco was a royal monopoly, a price being fixed by the government on
the different qualities of this article, according to the province in
which it was grown; at such price the whole was paid for; after which it
was brought to Lima, where it was sold at an established rate at the
_estanco_, or general depôt. If any person either bought or sold tobacco
without a license, confiscation of the article and a heavy fine were the
result, and frequently the whole property of the offender became a
forfeit. On an average, the King purchased it at three reals, three
eighths of a dollar, per pound, and sold it again at two dollars; but
such was the number of officers employed to prevent smuggling, collect
the tobacco, and attend the estanco, that, on the whole, the revenue
suffered very considerably, although the profit was so great. Snuff was
not allowed to be manufactured in Peru; one kind called _polvillo_ was
brought from Seville, and rappee from the Havanna; but both were
included in the royal monopoly. To secure the tax imposed on tobacco, no
one could cultivate it without express permission from the Director;
and, on delivery, the planter was obliged to make oath as to the number
of plants which he had harvested; also that he had not reserved one leaf
for his own use, nor for any other purpose. This tyrannical monopoly
produced more hatred to the Spanish government than all the other
taxes. Not only every tobacco planter, but every consumer joined in
execrating so disagreeable an impost.

The _media anata_, or moiety of the yearly product of all places or
employments under government, was paid into the treasury, or rather
reserved out of the stipend when the payment was made by the treasury.
This moiety was deducted for the first year only, and if the individual
were promoted to a more lucrative situation, he again paid the surplus
of his appointment for one year.

_Aprovechamientos_, or profits, were, in seized goods, the excess of
their valuation over their sale, which excess was paid into the treasury
so that the King took the goods as they were appraised by _his
officers_, and appropriated to himself the profit of the public sale.

Composition and confirmation of lands were the produce arising from the
sale of lands belonging to the crown, and the duty paid by the purchaser
for the original title deeds.

The royal ninths, _novenos reales_, were the one ninth of all the tithes
collected: the amount was paid into the treasury. Tithes were
established in America by an edict of Charles V. dated the 5th of
October, 1501. They were at first applied wholly to the support of the
church; but in 1541 it was ordained that they should be divided into
four parts; one to be given to the bishop of the diocese, one to the
chapter, and out of the remainder two ninths should belong to the crown,
three for the foundation of churches and hospitals, and four ninths for
the support of curates and other officiating ecclesiastics. This
distribution was afterwards altered, and the seven ninths of the moiety
were applied to the latter purpose. The tithe on sugar, cocoa, coffee
and other agricultural productions which required an expensive process
before they were considered as articles of commerce paid only five per
cent.; but ten per cent. was rigorously exacted on all produce and
fruits which did not require such a process. Tobacco, being a royal
monopoly, paid no tithes.

All offices in the _cabildos_, excepting those of the two _alcaldes_;
those of notaries, _escribanos_, receivers and recorders of the
audience, paid a fine to the King on his appointment, in proportion to
the value of the office, but the incumbent was allowed to sell his
appointment, on certain conditions established by law, which conditions,
however, almost debarred any person from being a purchaser.

All property found was to be delivered to the solicitor of the treasury;
and if it remained one year unclaimed it was declared to belong to the
crown. All contraband or confiscated property paid to the King the
duties which would have been paid had the commodity been regularly
imported or exported; after which the value produced by sale, the
_aprovechamiento_ being deducted, was divided among the informer, the
captors, the intendant, the Council of Indies and the King. Fines
imposed as penalties in the different courts of justice belonged to the
crown, and were paid into the treasury. The property of any person dying
intestate appertained to the King. The revenue arising from commerce was
exacted under a great many heads, and was as complicated a system as the
rest of the Spanish proceedings, which appeared to be directed to the
employment of a number of officers and the diminution of finance.

The _almoxarifasgo_ was paid on whatever was either shipped or landed;
on entering any Spanish port five per cent. was paid, on going out, two
per cent.

The _corso_ was levied on entry as well as departure, being in both
cases two per cent. The duty called _armada_ was a tax established for
defraying the expenses incurred in the protection of vessels against
pirates; that of _corso_ against enemies in time of war; but although
the former might not exist, and the latter have ceased, the tax was
still levied, in contradiction to the old rule, that the effect ceases
with the cause. The armada was four per cent. on entry, and two on
departure. The duty of the consulate was received at the maritime custom
houses, and the product accounted for to the tribunal; it was one per
cent. on entry, and one on departure.

Besides the foregoing taxes, the tariff taxes were paid, the list of
which would be too long for insertion. In 1810 the Viceroy Abascal
issued a decree, by which British manufactured goods were permitted to
be brought across the Isthmus of Panama, and thence to Callao, on
condition of their paying a duty of thirty-seven and a half per cent.,
called _el derecho de cirquito_, circuit duty, in addition to all the
other taxes. A merchant in Lima assured me, that having remitted thirty
thousand dollars to Jamaica, to be employed in the purchase of cotton
goods, the expenses of freight, the porterage, and the duties together
amounted to forty-two thousand three hundred and seventy-five dollars by
the time the goods were warehoused in Lima.

Among the ecclesiastical contributions to the state were major and minor
vacancies, which were the rents of vacant bishoprics, prebendaries and
canonries; these rents were paid into the treasury until the new
dignitary was appointed, and took possession of his benefice.

The _mesada ecclesiastica_ was the amount of the first month, or the
twelfth part of the annual income of each rector after his presentation
to a new benefice. This was estimated by the solicitor of the treasury,
and religiously exacted.

The _media anata ecclesiastica_ was the proceeds of the first six months
which the dignitaries and canons of the chapters paid out of the income
of their benefices. Restitution was the money which penitents delivered
to their confessors, being the amount of what they believed they had
defrauded the crown, by smuggling, or other unlawful practices. The name
of the restitutionist was kept a profound secret; all that the confessor
had to do was, to deliver the money he might receive to the collector at
the treasury. This was giving to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar’s.

The greatest amount of revenue which the King received from the church
arose from the sale of bulls; and of these there was a great variety.
Jovellanos says, in his description of the pope’s bulls, “that they are
a periodical publication of the highest price, least value, meanest
type, and worst paper; all buy them, few read them, and none understand
them.”

The bulls were first granted by the popes as a kind of passport to
heaven to all those who died in the wars against infidels; they
contained most extraordinary dispensations, both with respect to
Christian duties in this world and to the punishment due to crimes in
the next; and although the crusades, and other wars that drove men to
heaven, or to some other place, at the point of the lance, or sword, had
ceased, yet the influence of the bulls in increasing the revenue was of
too great importance to the king for him to allow them to die with the
cause that gave them birth: their effects were too useful to be
renounced.

According to the original terms of the bulls, no person could reap the
benefit unless he were actually serving in the war; afterwards he might
procure a substitute and remain secure at home; but now he can enjoy the
blessings of peace at a much cheaper rate. The bulls sold in South
America were, the general bull for the living, or of the holy crusade;
the bull of _lacticinios_, milk food; of _composicion_, accommodation;
and the bull for the dead.

The general bull for the living retained its virtue in the hands of its
possessor for two years, at which period it expired, but the benefit
might be renewed by purchasing another. The advantages derived from the
possession of this bull included generally all those of the other three
though not in so direct a manner; having this, no cases were reserved
for papal absolution; all kinds of vows might be released, excepting
those which would contribute more to the church by their fulfilment;
blasphemy was forgiven; any thing except flesh meat might be eaten on
fast days; and one day of fasting, one prayer repeated, or one good deed
done, was equal to fifteen times fifteen forties of fast days, prayers,
or good deeds done by the unlucky being who had not purchased this bull.
Nay more–the buying of two bulls conveyed to the purchaser a double
portion of privileges. The price of this precious paper varied according
to the rank of the sinful purchaser: a viceroy, captain-general of a
province, lieutenant-general of the army and their wives paid fifteen
dollars for each bull; archbishops, bishops, inquisitors, canons, dukes,
marquises, and all noblemen, also magistrates and many others, five
dollars each; every individual who was in possession of property to the
amount of 6000 dollars, paid one dollar and a half for his bull; and all
persons under this class enjoyed all the privileges conceded to the rich
and powerful, for two and a half reals, or five sixteenths, of a dollar
each.

The bull of _lacticinios_, or milk food, was issued for the benefit of
the clergy, they not being allowed by the general bull to eat such
dainties on fast days; but as the result did not answer the expectations
of the crown the commissary-general recommended the laity to purchase it
for the prevention of conscientious scruples. Archbishops, bishops, and
conventual prelates paid six; canons, dignitaries and inquisitors, paid
three; rectors and curates one and a half, and all other secular priests
one dollar for each bull. A celebrated Spanish writer, speaking of this
bull, says, “the holy father has only allowed them these dainties when
they can be procured, another bull is wanting to eat them at all events,
but for this purpose the bull of _composicion_ may be made to answer.”

This bull of composition, or accommodation, is monstrous; for it gives
to the possessor of stolen property a quiet conscience and absolute
possession, on condition that he has stolen it evading the punishment
applicable by law; that he knows not the person whom he has robbed or
defrauded, and that the knowledge of this accommodating bull did not
induce him to commit the theft. Thus this papal pardon by accommodation
or agreement insures to a lawless villain a quiet possession of
property, the means of acquiring which ought to have been rewarded by
the hangman! The possessor of the unlawfully acquired property fixed a
value on it, and purchased bulls to the amount of six per cent. on the
principal. Only fifty bulls could be purchased in one year by one
individual, but if he required more, he applied to the
commissary-general, whose indulgence might be purchased.

The bull for the dead was a kind of safe conduct to paradise–the
masonic sign to Saint Peter for admission there, or a discharge from
purgatory, if the soul of the deceased had reached this place before the
bull was purchased, or if by some mishap the name of the individual had
not been written on it, or had been wrongly spelled. How unfortunate
must those pious Christians have been who lived, or rather who died at a
great distance from the bull vender, or who had not the means of
purchasing this pontifical passport; for every person must have one, the
article not being transferable, because this would injure the market;
but any person was allowed to purchase more than one and at any period
after the death of the person he wished to befriend, as its powerful
influence might be extended to the general benefit and alleviation of
souls in purgatory. Thus it is that piety when accompanied with money
has wonderful powers! All persons included among the first class of
purchasers of the general bull paid six eighths of a dollar, six reals,
for one for the dead, if he belonged to this class, but if he were of
the fourth it only cost two reals, two eighths of a dollar.

I shall not pretend to give an estimate of the sum produced by the
taxes, the jealousy of the Spaniards towards a foreigner being so great
that it would have been dangerous for me even to have inquired. The two
following items I obtained by chance:

DOLLARS.

The Custom House of Lima received in 1805 1592837-2½
Ditto in 1810 1640324-4
Produce of bulls in the Commissary’s }
office for the Viceroyalty of Peru } in 1805 91021
Ditto in 1810 97340-2

Continue Reading

Entertainments

On the 14th of February, 1804, I landed on the Island of Mocha, after a
passage of upwards of five months from England, during which we passed
between the Cape de Verd Islands, and touched at one of them called
Mayo, for the purpose of procuring salt, which appears to be the only
article of commerce. It is produced by admitting the sea water on flats,
embanked next to the sea, during the spring tides, and allowing it to
evaporate: the salt is then collected and carried off before the return
of the high tides, when the water is again admitted, and the same
process takes place. The sea water is here strongly impregnated with
salt, owing probably to the great evaporation caused by the intense
power of the heat, which also aids and hastens the process on shore. The
inhabitants whom I saw were all blacks, with the solitary exception of
a priest, and many of them in a state of nudity, even to an age at which
decency if not modesty requires a covering. A small quantity of bananas,
the only fruit we could procure, and some poultry, were brought from St.
Jago’s, another of the islands, visible from Mayo.

The Island of Mocha, situate in 38° 21´ S. and that called Santa Maria,
lying about 80 miles to the northward of it, were the patrimony of a
family, now residing at Conception, of the name of Santa Maria, who
lived on the latter, and sent some people to reside at Mocha, but after
the commencement of the war between England and Spain, in 1780, the
family, as well as the whole of the inhabitants, were ordered by the
government of Chile to quit the islands, under the pretence that these
were a resort for smugglers: a pretence derived from the common error,
that privacy is preventive of contraband.

During the time that Mocha was in the possession of the Santa Marias a
number of the original indian inhabitants, belonging to the tribe found
on it when first visited by the Spaniards in 1549, resided there, but
they were also removed to Conception.

These two islands having been once inhabited, there are yet to be found
some few remains of cattle, which have continued to procreate: on Mocha
are horses and pigs, and some barn door fowls. Mocha is about fifteen
miles in circumference, hilly in the centre, and sloping towards the
coast, more so on the western side, where a tolerably good anchorage and
a safe landing place, on a sandy beach, may be found. Fresh water flows
from several springs; wild turnips, mint and other herbs grow in
abundance; the trees on the hilly part are principally the white
cinnamon, named by the Spaniards _canelo_, the magui, the luma, a tree
called _espino_, and others. Here are also apple, peach and cherry
trees, with a variety of wild strawberries, and myrtle-berries. Some
solitary seals yet remain on the rocks on the south side of the island.

I left Mocha after remaining there alone thirty-two days, and landed
from the brig Polly at Tucapel Viejo, the residence of one of the
Caciques, or Ulmenes, of the Araucanian indians, by whom I was most
hospitably treated.

The male indians who appeared on the beach were of a reddish brown or
copper colour, few of them reaching to the height of six feet. They were
finely shaped and very muscular, having a round face, well formed
forehead, small black eyes, flattish nose, moderately thick lips and
good teeth, but no beard. The whole of the countenance is expressive of
a certain portion of vivacity, and not uninteresting; the hair is black
and strong, all of it being drawn behind the head and platted. The women
are lower in stature than the men, their features similar, and some of
the girls, if I be not allowed to call them handsome, I cannot abstain
from saying are very pretty. The females wear their hair long, and
platted behind their heads: it is afterwards wrapped round with a tape
about an inch and a half broad, to one edge of which are attached a
number of small hawks’ bells: the plait is allowed to hang down the
back, and not unfrequently reaches below their knees.

The dress or costume of the indians at first appeared very singular to
me. In the men it consisted of a flannel shirt, and a pair of loose
drawers of the same material, generally white, reaching below the calves
of the legs; a coarse species of rug about two yards wide and two and a
half long, with a slit in the middle through which the head was passed:
this garment, if so I may style it, hanging over the shoulders and
reaching below the knees, is called a _poncho_. The common ones seemed
to be made from a brownish sort of wool, but some were very fancifully
woven in stripes of different colours and devices, such as animals,
birds, flowers, &c. Of the poncho I shall have occasion to speak again,
as it is universally worn in all the provinces of South America which I
visited; but I must say here, that I considered it as an excellent
riding dress; for hanging loosely and covering the whole body, it leaves
the arms quite at liberty to manage the whip and reins. The hat commonly
worn is in the form of a cone, without any skirts; for shoes they
substitute a piece of raw bull’s hide cut to the shape of the sole of
the foot, and tied on with slender thongs of leather. The females wear a
long white flannel tunic, without sleeves, and an upper garment of black
flannel, extending below their knees, the sides closed up to the waist,
and the corners from the back brought over the shoulders and fastened to
the corners of the piece in front with two large thorns, procured from a
species of cactus, or with large silver brooches: it is afterwards
closed round the waist with a girdle about three inches broad, generally
woven in devices of different colours; very often, however, nothing but
the white tunic is worn, with the girdle, and a small mantle or cloak
called _ichella_. The favourite colour among the indians appeared to be
a bluish green, though I saw few of their garments of this colour at
Tucapel, but remarked afterwards, at the town of Arauco, that all those
who came to sell or barter their fruit, &c. wore it. The females
generally have nothing on their heads or feet, but have a profusion of
silver rings on their fingers, and on their arms and necks an abundance
of glass bead bracelets and necklaces.

The occupation of the men, as in most unenlightened countries, appeared
to be confined to riding out to see their cattle, their small portions
of land, cultivated by the women, and to hunting. The females were
employed spinning wool with a spindle about ten inches long, having a
circular piece of burnt clay at the bottom, to assist and regulate the
rotary motion given by twirling it with the finger and thumb at the
upper end. They generally sit on the ground to spin, and draw a thread
about a yard long, which they wind on the spindle, tie a knot on the
upper end, and draw another thread: though this work is very tedious,
compared to what may be done by our common spinning-wheels, yet their
dexterity and constancy enable them to manufacture all their wearing
apparel. Weaving is conducted on a plan fully as simple as spinning. The
frame-work for the loom is composed of eight slender poles, cut in the
woods when wanted, and afterwards burnt; four of these are stuck in the
ground at right angles, the other four are lashed with thongs at the
top, forming a square, and the frame is complete. The treadles are then
placed about a foot from the front, having a roller at the back of the
frame for the yarn and another in front for the cloth, both tied fast
with thongs; the sleys, made of worsted, doubled, have two knots tied in
the middle of each pair of threads, leaving a small space between the
knots through which to pass the warp. After all the yarns are passed
through the sleys the ends are tied in small bunches to the roller,
which is turned round by two females, one at each end, whilst another
attends to the balls in front; the other ends of the yarn are then tied
to the roller in front. The thongs connected with the treadle are
fastened one to each of the sleys, and a thong being made fast to the
upper part of one of them is thrown over a loose slender pole, placed on
the top of the frame and then made fast to the other sley, so that when
one treadle is pressed by the foot it draws down one of the sleys,
holding every alternate thread, and the other rises, carrying with it
the other half of the warp. Instead of a shuttle the yarn is wound round
a slender stick, of the necessary length, and passed through the opening
formed by the rising of one of the sleys and the falling of the other;
the contrary treadle is then pressed down, and a slender piece of hard
heavy wood, longer than the breadth of the cloth, is passed across, and
the weaver taking hold of both ends drags it towards her and compresses
the thread. This piece of wood, shaped somewhat like a long sword, is
called the _macana_, and has often been resorted to as a weapon in time
of war. The same rude mode of weaving is common, though not universal,
in South America. The manner of weaving ponchos I shall describe when
treating of the town of Arauco, for what I saw here did not deserve
attention.

Besides the laborious occupation of spinning and weaving, and the usual
household labour, each wife (for polygamy is allowed, every man marrying
as many wives as he choose, or rather, as many as he can maintain) has
to present to her husband daily a dish of her own cooking, and annually
a _poncho_ of her own spinning and weaving, besides flannel for shirts
and drawers. Thus an indian’s house generally contains as many fire
places and looms as he has wives, and Abbé Molina says, that instead of
asking a man how many wives he has, it is more polite to ask him how
many fires he keeps.

The females are cleanly in their houses and persons; dirt is never seen
on their clothes, and they frequently bathe, or wash themselves three or
four times a day. The men also pay great attention to the cleanliness of
their persons. The females attend to the cultivation of their gardens,
in which the men work but little, considering themselves absolute
masters–the lords of the creation, born only to command, and the
women, being the weaker, to obey: sentiments which polygamy supports;
plurality of wives tending to destroy those tender feelings of
attachment which we find in countries where the law allows only one
wife. The principal part of the labour of their farms is performed by
the women, who often plough, sow, reap and carry to the thrashing floor
the wheat or barley, which, when trodden out by horses, is thrown into
the air, that the wind may blow away the chaff. I saw no other grain at
Tucapel or its vicinity but wheat and barley, in small patches; but I
was told that they produced a hundred fold.

The care of the offspring is entirely committed to the women. A mother
immediately on her delivery takes her child, and going down to the
nearest stream of water, washes herself and it, and returns to the usual
labours of her station. The children are never swaddled, nor their
bodies confined by any tight clothing; they are wrapped in a piece of
flannel, laid on a sheep skin, and put into a basket suspended from the
roof, which occasionally receives a push from any one passing, and
continues swinging for some minutes. They are allowed to crawl about
nearly naked until they can walk; and afterwards, to the age of ten or
twelve years, the boys wear a small poncho, and the girls a piece of
flannel, wrapped round their waist, reaching down to the knees. The
mother, after that age, abandons the boys to the care of the father, on
whom they attend and wait as servants; and the daughters are instructed
in the several works which it will ere long become their duty to fulfil.
To the loose clothing which the children wear from their infancy may
doubtless be attributed the total absence of deformity among the
indians. Perhaps some travellers might suggest, that confinement in any
shape would be considered disgraceful to the haughty Araucanians, who
are pleased to call themselves, “the never vanquished, always victors.”

The house to which I was conveyed by the indians was about five leagues
from the coast, situated in a ravine, towards the farther extremity of
which the range of hills on each side appeared to unite. A stream of
excellent water ran at the bottom of the small valley, winding its way
to the sea, and fordable at this time of the year, but visibly much
deeper at other times, from the marks of the surface water on the banks
and on several large pieces of rock lying in the stream.

The low part of the ravine (at first more than three miles wide, and
gradually closing as we rode up towards the house) was cultivated in
small patches; and among the brushwood were to be seen clusters of
apple, pear and peach trees, some of them so laden with fruit that their
branches were bent to the ground. The sides of the mountains displayed
in gorgeous profusion the gifts of nature; the same kind of fruit trees,
laden with their ripe produce, enlivened the view, and relieved the eye
from the deep green of the woods which covered the landscape, save here
and there the naked spire of a rock washed by the rains and whitened by
the sunbeams. The situation of the house appeared to have been chosen
not so much for its picturesque beauty, as for the facility of defending
it: the only approach was the road which we took, it being impossible to
descend the mountains on either side–an impossibility which appeared to
increase as we drew nearer to the house.

Four or five of the young indians, or _mosotones_, rode forward to the
house, and when it first opened to our view a crowd of women and
children had ranged themselves in front, gaping in wild astonishment at
my very unexpected appearance. We rode up to the house, which stood on a
small plain, about thirty yards above the level of the stream, and
alighted amid the din of questions and answers equally unintelligible to
me. The wild stare of curiosity, sweetened with a compassionate
expression of countenance, precluded all fear, and I could not avoid
saying to myself, Great Author of Nature, I now for the first time
behold thy animated works, unadorned with the luxuries, and free, may I
hope, from the concomitant vices, of civilization!

The house was a thatched building, about sixty feet long, and twenty
broad, with mud walls seven feet high, two doors in the front, opposite
to two others at the back, and without windows. The back part on the
inside was divided into births, the divisions being formed of canes
thinly covered with clay, projecting about six feet from the wall, with
a bed place three feet wide, raised two from the floor; the whole
appearing somewhat like a range of stalls in a stable. Opposite to these
births, and running from one end to the other, excepting the spaces at
the two doors, the floor was elevated about ten inches, and was six feet
wide: this elevation was partly covered with small carpets and rugs,
which with five or six low tables composed the whole of the household
furniture. The two doors on the back side led to the kitchen, a range of
building as long as the house, but entirely detached from it: here were
several hearths, or fire-places, surrounded with small earthen pots,
pans and some baskets made of split cane; and over each fire-place was
suspended a flat kind of basket holding meat and fish, and answering the
purpose of a safe: it is called by the indians a _chigua_. The horses
were unsaddled, and the saddles placed on the floor at one end of the
house.

The family, or what I conceived to be the family, was composed of
upwards of forty individuals. The father was between forty and fifty
years old, and apparently enjoyed all the privileges of a patriarch.
There were eight women, whom I considered to be his wives, though during
my stay he appeared to associate with only one of them, if allowing her
to wait upon him whilst eating and receiving from the others their
respective dishes (which she placed successively on the small low table)
can be called association. The young men eat the food brought to them at
different tables, or in different parts of the house. The women and
children adjourned to the kitchen, and there partook of what was left by
the male part of the family. From the first day of my arrival to the
last of my stay I always ate out of the same dish with the Cacique, or
Ulmen, for his rank I did not exactly know. Our fingers supplied the
place of forks, and large muscle shells that of spoons: knives I never
saw used at table.

Our food chiefly consisted of fresh mutton, jirked beef, fish, or
poultry, cut into small pieces and stewed with potatoes or pompions,
seasoned with onions, garlic and cayenne pepper, or capsicum. Our
breakfast, at about sunrise, was composed of some flour or toasted
wheat, coarsely ground, or crushed, and mixed with water, either hot or
cold, as it suited the palate of the eater. This flour is produced or
manufactured by first roasting the wheat or barley in an earthen pan
placed over a slow fire, until the grain takes a pale brown hue. When
cold it is ground on a flat stone, about eight inches or a foot wide,
and two feet or more in length, as they can best procure it. This is put
on the ground, with the end next the female raised about four inches.
She then takes another stone, which reaches nearly across the first, and
weighs from six to ten pounds; this she presses with her hands, and
bruises the grain, which is crushed to a state somewhat like coarsely
ground coffee. At the lower end of the stone is generally placed a clean
lamb skin, with the wool downwards, which receives the flour, called by
the indians _machica_. Our dinner (made up of the stews or messes which
I have mentioned) was generally served at noon in calabashes, or gourds
cut in two, being three inches deep, and some of them from twelve to
twenty inches in diameter. Our supper, which we took at eight o’clock,
was milk, with _machica_, or potatoes.

I cannot refrain from describing a favourite preparation of milk, called
by the natives _milcow_. Potatoes and a species of pompion, _zapallo_,
were roasted, the insides of both taken out, and kneaded together with a
small quantity of salt, and sometimes with eggs. This paste was made
into little cakes, each about the size of a dollar, and a large quantity
was put into a pot of milk, and allowed to boil for a quarter of an
hour. I joined the Indians in considering it an excellent dish. Their
poultry, fed on barley and potatoes, was fat and good; their fish, both
from the sea and the river, capital; and their beef and mutton in
fatness and flavour were far above mediocrity.

The beverage at this time of the year, there being abundance of apples,
was principally new cider, but it was sufficiently fermented to produce
intoxication, which I had several opportunities of observing among the
men: to the credit of the women, however, I must say, that I never saw
one of them in a state of ebriety. I was informed that at other times of
the year they fermented liquors from the maize, the process of which I
shall afterwards describe. Their cider is made in the following rude
manner:–a quantity of apples is procured from the woods by the women;
they are put into a species of trough, from eight to ten feet long,
being the trunk of a large tree scooped into a shape somewhat similar to
a canoe. A woman then takes a stick, or cane, nearly the length of the
trough, and standing at one extremity, beats the apples to pieces. They
are afterwards collected at one end, pressed with the hands, and the
juice is received either in large calabashes (dried gourds) or in
prepared goats’ hides. It is now carried to the house, poured into an
earthen jar, and left to ferment. The jars are made by the Indians of
baked clay:–some will hold upwards of a hundred gallons, which shews
that these people have some skill in pottery.

The only in-door diversion which I witnessed among the Indians at
Tucapel was what they certainly considered a dance. About sixteen men
and women intermixed stood up in a row, and following each other,
trotted about the room to the sound of a small drum, which was made by
drawing a piece of the fresh skin of a kid or lamb over an earthen pot
used for cooking. This diversion I saw but twice, and in both instances
after supper. Indeed the indians are not calculated for this kind of
amusement. They associate with each other but little. The females are
considered inferior to the men, and consequently no harmony or
conviviality appears to result from their company. The principal
out-door diversion among the young men is the _palican_: this game is
called by the Spaniards _chueca_, and is similar to one I have seen in
England called bandy. Molina says it is like the _calcio_ of the
Florentines and the _orpasto_ of the Greeks.

The company divides into two sets. Each person has a stick about four
feet long, curved at the lower end. A small hard ball, sometimes of
wood, is thrown on the ground: the parties separate; some advance
towards the ball, and others stand aloof to prevent it when struck from
going beyond the limits assigned, which would occasion the loss of the
game. I was told that the most important matters have been adjusted in
the different provinces of Araucania by crooked sticks and a ball: the
decision of the dispute is that of the game–the winner of the game
being the winner of the dispute.

At Arauco I heard that the present bishop of Conception, Roa, having
passed the territory belonging to the indians with their permission, (a
formality never to be dispensed with) on his visitation to Valdivia, was
apprehended in returning for not having solicited and obtained a pass,
or safe-conduct from the _Uthalmapu_, or principal political chief of
the country which he had to traverse, called by the indians, the
_Lauguen Mapu_, or marine district. His lordship was not only made
prisoner but despoiled of all his equipage; and it became a matter of
dispute, which nothing but the _palican_ could decide, whether he should
be put to death or allowed to proceed to Conception. The game was played
in the presence of the bishop: he had the satisfaction of seeing his
party win, and his life was saved. The propriety, however, of keeping
the booty taken from him was not questioned by any one.

That part of the country which I had an opportunity of visiting with
some of these kind indians was not extensive, but extremely beautiful.
The soil was rich, every kind of vegetation luxuriant, and some of the
trees were very large: the principal ones were the _espino_, the _luma_,
the _maque_, and the _pehuen_.

I was informed that the indians have both gold and silver mines, and
that they are acquainted with the art of extracting the metal from the
ores. One might presume that there was some foundation for this report
from the ornaments made of the precious metals seen in their possession:
they are of Spanish manufacture, and perhaps either the spoils of war or
the result of barter.

A trade of no great importance might be established here. The wool,
which is good, and timber, with some gold and silver, would be given in
return for knives, axes, hatchets, white and greenish coarse flannel,
ponchos, bridle bits, spurs, &c.

At about three o’clock, on a moonlight morning, in the month of April, I
left the house of my kind Toqui, with five indians. We were all on
horseback, and travelled till after sunrise, when arriving at what
appeared to me to be a common resting place, we alighted, and I
witnessed a most romantic scene.

The indians were habited in their rude costume, the poncho, the
sugar-loaf hat, the hide sandals, and spurs with rowels at least three
inches in diameter. Their horses were as uncouthly caparisoned: a deep
saddle was covered with three or four sheep skins, over which was spread
a bluish rug of long shaggy wool, the crupper with a broad piece of
leather hanging across the horse’s rump, and a broader strap attached to
each side of the saddle passing round the horse behind, about midway
down the thighs, and fastened to the cross piece to prevent its slipping
to the ground. These straps were fancifully stamped, and cut into
various shapes and devices. The huge wooden box stirrups were large
enough to hold the feet of the rider; and the heavy-bitted bridle had
beautifully platted reins, terminating in a lash or whip of the same
workmanship, divided at the end into eight or ten minor plaits, forming
a tuft resembling a tassel.

The spot at which we arrived was enchanting. The branches of a large
carob tree extended themselves above our heads, while the beautifully
green sward was spread under our feet. A small stream of water worked
its way among the pebbles on one side, and in the distance on the other
the Pacific Ocean, silvered with the rays of the newly risen sun,
heightened in brilliancy by the intervening deep green of the woods,
presented itself to our view. What an awfully grand collection of the
works of nature! He who could behold them without feeling his bosom
swell with such sensations of delight as tongue cannot utter nor pen
describe, cannot be made by this faint description to partake of what I
felt at that moment.

After the indians had alighted, part of them ran to the brook and
brought some water, in bullocks’ horns, which they always carry with
them for this purpose. They divided it among their comrades, each
receiving about a pint. Every one now took from his girdle a small
leather bag, the skin of an animal of the size of a cat, and putting a
handful of roasted flour into the horn with the water, stirred it about
with a small stick and eat it. I followed their example, and this
mixture constituted our breakfast. We then pursued our journey. About
noon we arrived at Tubul, and went to a large house belonging, as I
supposed, to the Toqui, or Cacique. Here are several other houses,
forming a small hamlet, all of whose inhabitants are indians.

We were regaled with the usual fare at dinner, with the addition of a
lamb, which was killed after our arrival, cut into halves, and roasted
over the embers. What may be considered as a certain portion of
civilization made its appearance at Tubul: the roasted lamb was laid on
a large ill-fashioned silver dish, some silver spoons and forks were
placed on the Toqui’s table: not a knife was to be seen, but the
drinking horns had bottoms. Besides the cider some strong ill tasted
brandy and thick sweet wine crowned the board.

My indian comrades or conductors occasioned much sport after dinner, by
playing what they call the _peuca_, which Molina says serves them as an
image of war. Fifteen _mosotones_, young Indians, took hold of each
other by the hands and formed a circle, in the centre of which a boy
about ten years old was placed. An equal number of young men were then
engaged in attempting to take the boy out of the ring, in which the
victory consists. The indians forming the ring at first extended their
arms as wide as they could, and paced gently round. The others rushed
altogether on the ring, and tried to break it, but their opponents
closed and the invaders were forced to desist. They then threw
themselves into several groups of two or three in each, advanced and
attacked at different points, but were again baffled in their efforts,
and after many unsuccessful trials to break the ring, and take the boy,
they were obliged through fatigue to abandon their enterprise. When the
game, which lasted at least three hours, was finished, abundance of
cider was brought, and the effects of drinking it were soon visible.
Wrestling parties commenced, in which great strength and agility were
shown: the first throw decided each contest, and the horns of cider
were freely circulated to cheer the drooping spirits of the youths. The
females and children stood in groups to witness these sports, and
interest and enthusiasm were strongly marked in their countenances.

After a supper of _milcow_, roasted potatoes, milk, &c. we retired to
our beds, which were formed of five or six clean white sheep skins, and
some white flannel. We rose at an early hour the next morning; five more
young indians were attached to my escort, and we proceeded on our way to
Arauco.

There is a roadstead and good anchorage at Tubul, and in any emergency
ships may procure an abundance of bullocks, sheep, and excellent
vegetables, in exchange for knives, axes, buttons, beads, &c. The water
at the mouth of the river is salt, but good fresh water may be easily
obtained a little way up on the north side, where a rivulet joins the
Tubul.

Having travelled about six miles, we descended to the beach of a very
extensive bay, and saw the island of Santa Maria in the horizon. At the
foot of the promontory which we had crossed was a small stream and three
neat cottages with pretty gardens before them. My guides took me to the
first of these cottages, where we were received by a white woman, the
wife of a sergeant stationed here as at a kind of advanced post. The
sergeant soon made his appearance, and although I had been so very
kindly treated by the good indians, I felt a pleasure at finding myself
once again among people of my own colour, similar to that experienced by
a person who is relieved from an apprehension of danger, by being
satisfied that it does not exist. Some dispute arose respecting the
indians leaving me and returning home; but it was adjusted by the
sergeant sending two soldiers with us, with orders to present me to the
commandant, at Arauco. After breakfasting on roasted jerked beef and
bread, we proceeded towards Arauco, and arrived there at noon.

The country over which we travelled was every where covered with
vegetation, the valleys or bottoms of the ravines with grass and shrubs,
and their hilly sides with wood. After descending to the beach, several
small ravines opened to the right, containing a considerable number of
neat thatched cottages. Quantities of wild vines climbed from tree to
tree, laden with grapes as yet green; and clusters of apple, pear, and
peach trees adorned the sides of the hills, while the low land from
their bases to the sea side was divided and fenced in with branches of
trees–cattle, principally milch cows, feeding in the enclosures.

On our arrival at Arauco I was immediately taken to the house of the
commandant, who ordered me into his presence, and the soldiers and
indians to return. I was not a little surprised at the extravagant
appearance of this military hero, who undoubtedly considered himself, in
his present situation, equal to Alexander or Napoleon, and but for his
figure I should have conceived him to be a second Falstaff. He stood
about five feet six inches high, was remarkably slender, and had a
swarthy complexion, large Roman nose, small black eyes, projecting chin,
and toothless mouth. His hair was combed back from his forehead,
abundantly powdered, and tied in a cue _a la_ Frederick. He wore an old
tarnished gold laced uniform of faded blue, with deepened red lappels,
collar and cuffs, his waistcoat and breeches being of the latter colour;
bluish stockings, brown shoes for lack of blacking, and large square
brass buckles. A real Toledo was fastened to his side with a broad black
leather belt and a brass buckle in front: an equilateral triangular hat
covered his head. Such was the visible part of this soldier. His red
cloak was on a chair near him, while his worship stood, bolt upright, in
his vast importance _personale_! Never did chivalrous knight listen
with more gravity of countenance, measured demeanour or composed
posture, to the cravings of a woe-begotten squire, than did my old
commandant to my ill-digested narrative. But what a contrast presented
itself in his goodly lady, the _comandanta_, whom I could compare to
nothing better than a large lanthorn! She stood about four feet six
inches high, and as nearly as I could conceive measured the same round
the waist, which was encompassed by an enormous hoop, at least four feet
in diameter, having a petticoat of scarlet flannel, sewed into small
folds, the bottom of which was trimmed about a foot deep with something
yellow. She wore a green bodice, and the sleeves of her undermost
garment just covered her shoulders, and were edged with green ribbon and
white fringe. Her hair was all combed back from her forehead, and tied
behind with a broad black ribbon. On the top of her head appeared a
bunch of natural flowers. It might with propriety be said of this goodly
dame, that it would be much easier to pass over than to go round her.
There were also present the curate of the parish, two Franciscan friars,
and some of the inhabitants, one of whom, Don Nicolas del Rio,
compassionating the fate of a boy, (for I was then only seventeen)
asked the commandant to allow me to be his guest. This request being
granted, the chief put on his red cloak, walked with us to the house of
Don Nicolas, and, not forgetting one iota of etiquette, presented me to
the family, composed of the wife of Don Nicolas and three daughters;
their only son being with an uncle, who was governor of Angeles. During
the time I remained at Arauco I was treated in every respect as one of
the family by these kind and hospitable people. Visiting parties to
their gardens, orchards, and vineyards, followed each other daily, and
all possible care was taken to render me happy–and not in vain, for I
was happy.

Arauco is situated at the foot of a rocky hill, accessible only by a
winding path from the inside of the walls by which the town is
surrounded. On the top of the hill were four brass guns of eighteen
pounds calibre, with a breast-work of stone, a large house for the
soldiers, forming their barracks or guard-house, and a small watch
tower. The town is a square of about six hundred yards, and is
surrounded by a wall of eighteen feet high on three of the sides, the
hill forming the fourth; two small breast-works are raised at the
corners. An arched gateway stands in the centre of the north side, with
a massy wooden door, which is closed every night at eight o’clock, and
opened at six in the morning. From the gateway is a street to the
square, or market-place, where the church is erected. There is also a
convent of Franciscan friars, which was formerly a Jesuits’ college. The
garrison consisted of thirty privates with the respective subalterns and
officers. The whole population amounts to about four hundred souls.

The town is well supplied by a spring in the rock with most excellent
water, which falls into a large stone basin, and thence runs through the
square, the principal street, and out at the gateway. Fruit, fish,
poultry, and cider called _chicha_, are brought in daily by the indian
women, and sold or bartered principally for salt, which is the article
most in demand, there being none but what is imported. The greater part
used for culinary purposes is from Peru, but a coarser kind is obtained
from the coast of Chile, near to Valparaiso. The general salutation of
the indians is _marry, marry_; and I was told, that when a Cacique or
any other chief sends to a Spaniard his _marry, marry_, it is a sure
sign that he is at peace with the Spaniards, though other tribes may be
at war with them.

I had several opportunities at Arauco of seeing the indians employed in
weaving the fine _ponchos_, some of which, I learnt, were worth from a
hundred to a hundred and fifty dollars. The wool is first washed and
picked or combed, for they have no idea of carding. It is then spun with
the spindle, as already described, and afterwards dyed the necessary
colours, such as blue, green, yellow, red, &c., and if one be wanted
which they have not the materials to produce, they purchase a piece of
Manchester flannel of the colour required, pick it to pieces, reduce it
to wool, and spin it over again, the yarn being required to be much
finer than that of the flannel, and always twisted of two or more
threads. The _poncho_ is woven in stripes of one, two, or three inches
broad, which are subsequently sewed together. Sometimes, and for the
finest _ponchos_, no loom whatever is used. The coloured threads or
yarns are rolled on a round piece of wood; the weaver ties the other
ends of them to her girdle, and lifts and depresses the threads with her
fingers, passing the woof rolled on a cane instead of a shuttle, and
beating it with the _macana_. This may undoubtedly be considered the
lowest pitch of weaving, but the patterns on the stripes are very pretty
and ingenious, and the repetitions of the devices are extremely exact.

After a few days’ rest, it was proposed by Don Nicolas that I should
accompany his daughters on an excursion to some of the neighbouring
towns and villages: a proposal highly gratifying to myself, and
apparently not less so to my new acquaintance. A permission or passport
was procured for me from the commandant, and I was ordered to present it
at every military post we might arrive at. Whether there were any
necessity for this document I do not know; but I think it was provided
to give me an idea of the authority of the military chief; for I was
never asked for it, and when I presented it at any post it was never
read; but a curl of the upper lip showed the contempt with which it was
viewed by the subalterns of this great man!

Our cavalcade, on as delightful a morning as ever broke on joyous
travellers, made a very gay appearance. The three daughters of Don
Nicolas were mounted on good horses, with square side-saddles, the upper
part of which had rather the shape of small chairs, having backs and
arms covered with velvet, fastened with a profusion of brass-headed
nails. A board about ten inches long and four broad, covered and nailed
to match, was suspended on the far side of each horse; so that the rider
sat with her left hand to the horse’s head, contrary to the custom in
England. The bridles, cruppers and appendages were of exquisite platted
work, ornamented with a number of silver rings, buckles and small
plates. I rode a horse belonging to my good host, with saddle and
trappings decorated in the same manner. The saddle was raised about four
inches before and behind, and some sheep skins were put on the seat,
covered with a red rug of very long wool. Four sumpter mules were laden
with bedding and provender, two _mosotones_, young indians, were
appointed to attend to them, and two females to wait on their young
mistresses. We mounted, and at the gate were joined by the commandant’s
two daughters, who had two soldiers for their guard. Never did I feel
more delighted than when, having passed the gateway and advanced a few
yards, I turned round to view this novel scene, to which, in my mind, a
Canterbury pilgrimage was far inferior. Five young ladies in their rigid
costume; their small but beautifully wrought _ponchos_; their black hats
and feathers; their hoops, spreading out their fancifully coloured
coats, ornamented with ribbons, fringes, and spangles; the gay
trappings of their horses; the two soldiers in uniform; the indians; the
servant girls, and the sumpter mules, which closed the procession; the
merry countenances of all; the parents, relations and friends, waving
their hats and handkerchiefs from the walls of the town; the sound of
the church and convent bells, summoning the inhabitants to mass; the
distant view of the sea on one side, and that of the enchanting plain
and mountain scenery on the other–reminded me of fairy regions, and at
times caused me almost to doubt the reality of what I beheld. It was
predetermined that we should breakfast at a farm-house about two leagues
from Arauco. Thither we rode, leaving the indians to follow with their
charge.

Our arrival was anticipated, and a splendid breakfast had been prepared:
roasted lamb, fowls, fried eggs and fish smoaked on the table; whilst
chocolate and toasted bread, excellent butter and cheese finished the
repast. We honoured our host by eating heartily, and waited the arrival
of the indians: they were ordered to follow us to the mills. We shortly
reached the bank of the river Carampangue, and after riding about twelve
miles came to the mills called _de Carampangue_. The river is in some
places from eighty to a hundred yards wide, and in others not above
twenty; running slowly towards the sea, into which it empties itself
about four miles from Arauco. Its origin is said to be in the
Cordilleras. Where the mills are situated the river is twenty-two yards
wide, with a considerable fall, and water is drawn from it for their
service by channels. These mills are three in number, with vertical
water-wheels and one pair of stones to each mill. I was informed that
the stones are brought from a considerable distance, and that they cost
about one hundred and fifty dollars the pair. They are black, with small
white stains, resembling in size and shape the wings of flies, and hence
are called _ala de mosca_. When by any accident they are broken, the
only remedy is to procure new ones, the people being ignorant of any
cement with which to unite the pieces; and probably the expense of iron
work would amount to more than that of new stones; nay, I question
whether they have a blacksmith in this part of the country who could
forge hoops to brace them. The only precaution taken to prevent such
accidents is the passing a number of thongs of raw hide, while fresh,
round the stones, and when dry they are not perhaps very inferior to
iron hoops. The wood-work is as rude, the miller being the carpenter,
blacksmith, mason, &c. The flour is not bolted, but sifted by hand.
This however is no part of the business or trade of the miller, who is
only required to grind the corn; for the meal is carried home to its
owner, and separated from the bran with large hair sieves made by the
indians.

We dined at one of the houses, partly on the fare presented to us, and
partly on our own, brought by the sumpter mules. The afternoon was spent
in rambling about the neighbouring country and picking myrtle berries,
which are delicious, and called by the people _mutillas_. They are about
the size of a large pea, of a deep red colour and of a peculiarly sweet
and aromatic flavour. They are sometimes prepared by crushing them in
water and allowing them to ferment for a few days, which produces a
pleasant beverage called _chicha de mutilla_. We found abundance of wild
grapes, (which though neither large nor sweet were very palatable) some
few plums, and plenty of apples, pears and peaches. On our return to the
miller’s house we were presented with _mate_, which is a substitute for
tea, and is used more or less in every part of South America, but since
the present revolution it has become less prevalent, partly because the
custom of drinking tea _a la Inglesa_ is more fashionable, and partly
because a regular supply of the herb cannot be procured from Paraguay,
where it grows, and from whence it derives its name. The _mate_ is
prepared by putting into a silver or gold cup about a teaspoonful of the
herb of Paraguay, to which are added a bit of sugar, sometimes laid on
the fire until the outside be a little burnt, a few drops of lemon
juice, a piece of lemon peel and of cinnamon, or a clove. Boiling water
is poured in till the cup is full, and a silver tube, about the
thickness of the stalk of a tobacco pipe, six inches long and perforated
at the lower end with small holes, is introduced. Through this the
_mate_ is sucked, with the risk of scalding the mouth. A cup supported
on a salver, most curiously chased, or filigreed, is commonly used:
however a calabash, with a fillet of silver round the top, was used on
this occasion. One tube serves the whole party, and the female who
presides will not unfrequently give a hearty suck when the cup is
returned to her, and take another after replenishing it, before it is
handed to the company. A great deal of etiquette is observed with the
_mate_. It is first offered to the person who is the greatest stranger,
or most welcome visitor, a priest, if there happen to be one present,
which is generally the case. Nothing but the severe indisposition of
Friar Vicente at Arauco freed us from his presence: an event which was
not regretted by the party until dancing was proposed in the evening,
when his ghostly fathership was missed, as no one could play on the
guitar so well as he: however one of the soldiers offered his services;
the instrument was produced and tuned, the dance named, and the
sparkling eyes of the whole company, which had greatly increased since
our arrival, bespoke a wish to “trip it on the light fantastic toe;” but
to my astonishment, a young man and woman stepped into the middle of the
room, and began to jig to the sounds of the guitar, sounds not to be
equalled except by the filing of a saw, or the boisterous singing of the
performer. This I was told was a _bolero_. They danced about five
minutes, and were relieved by two others. In this manner the diversion
was kept up until after midnight, with the assistance of cider, _chicha
de mansana_, _chicha de mutilla_, bad wine, and some brandy made from
the wild grape of the country. A hot supper closed the scene, and we
retired to the beds prepared for us at the different houses.

The following morning after breakfast we mounted our horses, and having
crossed the river at a ford, pursued our route to Nacimiento, which is
a small village surrounded by a wall with four brass guns. The greater
part of the inhabitants are indians, and apparently very poor. We spent
the night at the house of the curate, but not so agreeably as we passed
the preceding one at the mills.

On the next day we went on to Santa Juana, another frontier town,
standing on an island formed by the river dividing itself into two
branches for the space of about half a mile and again uniting. This
river is the Bio-bio, and may with propriety be called the northern
boundary of Chile. The towns on the south side of the Bio-bio are under
great risk of being sacked by the indians, and are merely kept as
advanced posts by the Spaniards. We rested one day at Santa Juana, and
returned by a different road to Nacimiento, from thence to the
Carampangue mills, and the day after to Arauco, having spent seven days
in this most agreeable excursion.

I was exceedingly surprized at being informed that war had been declared
between England and Spain; and in a few days afterwards I received
orders to proceed to Conception. I remained at the house of my friend
Don Nicolas del Rio, until my departure, enjoying every day more and
more the kind hospitality of this worthy South American and his
excellent family, whom I left with the most sincere regret, impressed
with the idea that I should never see any of them again. I was, however,
deceived, for after a lapse of seventeen years we met under
circumstances which enabled me to repay a part of their kindness.

Continue Reading

THE DIVISION OF PERFUMERY

NOTE.—There is considerable confusion, in works on perfumery, regarding
the terms _essence_ and _extract_. In French works, _essence_ always
means “essential oil.” Thus “essence de rose” is “essential oil of
roses,” or “attar (otto) of roses.” _Extrait_ (French) is used of
alcoholic solutions of oils, as well as alcoholic extracts of pomades,
or of substances not wholly soluble in alcohol, and also of compound
liquids. In English, _essence_ is used, and should be confined to
alcoholic solutions of essential oils (“essence of lemon,” “essence
of peppermint”). It is, then, equivalent to the term “spirit,”
which is also used only of alcoholic solutions of essential oils or
other volatile substance (such as: spirit of peppermint, essence
of peppermint; spirit of camphor, etc.). Liquid alcoholic extracts
of substances not wholly soluble in alcohol are properly called
_tinctures_ (for instance, tincture of benzoin, tincture of musk); and
liquid alcoholic extracts of pomades, or compound odorous liquids, are
best comprised under the general term _extracts_.

We shall employ the terms _essence_, _extract_, and _tincture_ in the
sense here explained.

EXTRACT OF CASSIE (EXTRAIT DE CASSIE).

Cassie pomade 6 lbs.
Alcohol 5 qts.

Extract of cassie has a fine green color—a fact which is not desirable
in perfumes intended for the handkerchief because colored preparations
leave stains. However, extract of cassie is rarely used pure, but is
generally mixed with other odors for handkerchief perfumes, whereby the
color is so much diluted that it may be disregarded. This extract—and
the same remark applies to all the others—immediately after its
preparation must be put into tightly closed vessels and preserved in
the coolest attainable dark place; for light, air, and heat must be
called the destroyers of perfumes, since the most delightful odors
eventually disappear under their influence.

For the benefit of manufacturers who import this extract from Southern
France, the main source of supply, we may add that the word cassie or
extrait de cassie, derived from the flowers of Acacia farnesiana, might
readily give rise to confusion with extrait de cassia, made from the
bark of the cinnamon cassia.

TINCTURE OF AMBERGRIS (EXTRAIT D’AMBREGRIS).

Ambergris 5 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The ambergris should be broken into small pieces with a chopping knife
repeatedly moistened with alcohol, and allowed to digest in the alcohol
for some weeks at a temperature of about 30° C. (86° F.).

TINCTURE OF BENZOIN (EXTRAIT DE BENJOIN).

Benzoin 10 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This tincture is not so much used for handkerchief perfumes as for
preserving many pomades, as it possesses the valuable property of
preventing fats from becoming rancid.

ESSENCE OF BERGAMOT (EXTRAIT DE BERGAMOTTE).

Oil of bergamot 8 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

TINCTURE OF CASTOR (EXTRAIT DE CASTOREUM).

Castor 2½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

TINCTURE OF MUSK SEED (EXTRAIT D’AMBRETTE).

Musk seed, powdered 1 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF BITTER ALMOND (EXTRAIT D’AMANDE).

Oil of bitter almond 1¾ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF CALAMUS (EXTRAIT DE GLAÏEUL).

Oil of calamus 1¾ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This essence has a pleasant odor, but it is not valued as a true
perfume; though if it is mixed with other essences or extracts until
its characteristic odor is no longer recognizable it furnishes a very
useful basis for many cheap articles.

ESSENCE OF CEDAR (EXTRAIT DE CÈDRE).

Oil of cedar wood ½ lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This essence made from the oil is colorless and can be used immediately
for handkerchief perfumes.

TINCTURE OF CEDAR (EXTRAIT DE BOIS DE CÈDRE).

This is made by digesting finely rasped cedar wood with strong alcohol,
namely:

Cedar wood chips 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The result is a fragrant tincture with a beautiful deep red color which
cannot be employed for handkerchief perfumes, but for many cosmetic
preparations such as mouth washes and for scenting soap.

ESSENCE OF CITRONELLA.

Extrait de citronella 3 to 3½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF LEMON GRASS (EXTRAIT DE SCHOENANTHE).

Oil of lemon grass 2 to 3 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF LILAC (EXTRAIT DE LILAS).

The genuine is seldom made; the preparation sold under this name
consists of:

Oil of bitter almond 15 grains.
Extract of orange flowers, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 3 qts.
Tincture of civet ¼ pint.

Of late, extract of lilac is often prepared by means of lilacin or
terpineol, as follows:

Lilacin 1 oz.
Alcohol 1 pint.

EXTRACT OF HONEYSUCKLE (EXTRAIT DE CHÈVRE-FEUILLE).

The author has made this extract by treating the pomade prepared from
the flowers of Lonicera Caprifolium, in the following proportion:

Honeysuckle pomade 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The commercial extract of this name is always a compound which may be
prepared according to the following formula:

Extract of rose, made from the pomade 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of violet, from pomade 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla ½ pint.
Tincture of Tolu ½ pint.
Oil of bitter almond 15 grains.
Oil of neroli 8 grains.

ESSENCE OF GERANIUM.

Oil of geranium (rose-geranium) 5½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

In the commercial article the essence of lemon grass is often
substituted for the essence of geranium, the odor being similar, though
less delicate.

EXTRACT OF CUCUMBER (EXTRAIT DE CONCOMBRES).

Cucumbers 8 lbs.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The cucumbers are peeled, cut into thin slices, and macerated in the
warm alcohol. If the odor is not strong enough in the alcohol after
some days, it is poured over some more fresh slices, the macerated
residue is expressed, and at the end of the operation all the liquids
are united and filtered.

EXTRACT OF HELIOTROPE (EXTRAIT DE HÉLIOTROPE).

Heliotrope pomade 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This has thus far been manufactured only by French perfumers at very
high prices; the great majority of the so-called extracts of heliotrope
are compounded from:

Extract of rose, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of orange flowers, from pomade 14 oz.
Tincture of ambergris 7 oz.
Tincture of vanilla 4 qts.
Oil of bitter almond 75 grains.

This is used as a perfume as such.

More recently, piperonal, under the name heliotropin, is used for
making this extract—

Heliotropin ¼ oz.
Alcohol 1 Pint.

It is necessary to blend this with various other aromatics in order to
cover the pronounced odor. A little cumarin is usually of great help.
But is it impossible, as yet, to give reliable proportions which would
suit all cases.

EXTRACT OF JASMINE (EXTRAIT DE JASMIN).

Jasmine pomade 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF LAVENDER (EXTRAIT DE LAVANDE).

Oil of lavender 7 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

A far superior essence may be prepared by the distillation of:

Oil of lavender 7 oz.
Rose water 2 qts.
Alcohol 10 qts.

The distillation is continued until one-half of the entire liquid has
passed over; the residue in the still furnishes an essence of lavender
of the second quality.

EXTRACT OF WALLFLOWER (EXTRAIT DE GIROFLÉ).

The genuine odor can be made only from the pomade; the commercial
extract consists of:

Extract of cassie, from pomade 1 pint.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla. 1 pint.
Tincture of orris root 1 pint.
Oil of bitter almond 1 pint.

EXTRACT OF LILY (EXTRAIT DE LYS).

As to this delightful odor the remark made under the preceding head
applies likewise; artificial extract of lily consists of:

Extract of cassie, from pomade 3 pints.
Extract of jasmine, from pomade 13½ fl. oz.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 27 fl. oz.
Extract of rose, from pomade 3 pints.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 3 qts.
Tincture of vanilla 40½ fl. oz.
Oil of bitter almond 30 grains.

ESSENCE OF LEMON (EXTRAIT DE LIMON).

Oil of lemon 7 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF MAGNOLIA (EXTRAIT DE MAGNOLIA).

This favorite perfume is a mixture of:

Extract of orange flower, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of rose, from pomade 4 qts.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of violet, from pomade 1 qt.
Oil of bitter almond 40 grains.
Oil of lemon 16 grains.

ESSENCE OF PEPPERMINT (EXTRAIT DE MENTHE).

Oil of peppermint 6½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

TINCTURE OF MUSK (EXTRAIT DE MUSC).

Musk 2½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This tincture is of special importance, not so much because of its odor
as on account of its useful property of fixing other very volatile
odors.

EXTRACT OF MYRTLE (EXTRAIT DE MYRTE).

Owing to the small yield of essential oil furnished on distillation
by the myrtle and the comparatively high price of the oil of myrtle,
nearly all the extract of myrtle is prepared artificially, as follows:

Extract of jasmine, from pomade ½ pint.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of rose, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 1 qt.
Tincture of vanilla 1 qt.

EXTRACT OF NARCISSUS.

In perfumery, two extracts of narcissus are distinguished—true extract
of narcissus, from the flowers of the garden plant, Narcissus poeticus,
and the so-called extract of jonquille, from Narcissus Jonquilla,
which is cultivated in Southern France and whose odor is obtained by
maceration. Genuine extract of narcissus is even more rarely obtainable
than extract of jonquille; the odors of both are imitated, mainly
according to the following prescriptions:

1. EXTRACT OF NARCISSUS (EXTRAIT DE NARCISSE).

Extract of jonquille, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 3 qts.
Tincture of storax ½ pint.
Tincture of tolu ½ pint.

2. EXTRACT OF JONQUILLE (EXTRAIT DE JONQUILLE).

Extract of jasmine, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 2 qts.
Tincture of vanilla ½ pint.

ESSENCE OF CLOVE (EXTRAIT DE CLOUS DE GIROFLES).

Oil of clove 4½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF PINK (EXTRAIT D’ŒILLET).

This pleasant odor occurs in commerce only as an imitation.

Extract of cassie, from pomade 2½ pints.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 2½ pints.
Extract of rose, from pomade 5 pints.
Tincture of vanilla 20 fl. oz.
Oil of clove, a sufficient quantity, about 75 grains.

The oil of clove which determines the characteristic odor of this
extract is dissolved in a little alcohol; of this solution enough is
gradually added to the mixture until the odor has become sufficiently
strong.

EXTRACT OF ORANGE FLOWER OR NEROLI (EXTRAIT DE FLEURS D’ORANGES,
EXTRAIT DE NÉROLI).

Orange-flower pomade 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

Or,

Oil neroli pétale 2½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The latter preparation is also called “essence of neroli.”

The extract prepared from the pomade furnishes this highly esteemed
odor of a delicacy never to be approached by that made with oil. The
alcoholic extract of the pomade perfumed with the flowers of Syringa
(Philadelphus coronarius) also occurs in commerce as extract of orange
flowers or neroli.

ESSENCE OF PATCHOULY (EXTRAIT DE PATCHOULI).

Oil of patchouly 1¼ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This pure essence of patchouly has not a very pleasant odor; that made
according to the following formula is far superior.

Oil of patchouly 1½ oz.
Oil of rose ⅜ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

TINCTURE OF BALSAM OF PERU (EXTRAIT DE PÉROU).

Peru balsam 10½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This tincture, though of a very pleasant odor, can be used only for
scenting soap or sachets, as it has a very dark brown color; by
distilling alcohol over Peru balsam a colorless extract is obtained,
though of a fainter odor.

ESSENCE OF ALLSPICE (EXTRAIT DE PIMENT).

Oil of allspice 3½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF SWEET PEA (EXTRAIT DE POIS DE SENTEUR).

This extract, made almost exclusively in Southern France by maceration
of the pomade, is but rarely met with in commerce; what passes under
this name is made as follows:

Extract of orange flower, from pomade 2½ pints.
Extract of rose, from pomade 2½ pints.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 2½ pints.
Tincture of vanilla 5¾ oz.

EXTRACT OF RESEDA (EXTRAIT DE MIGNONETTE).

Reseda pomade 5 to 6 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.
Tincture of tolu 5½ oz.

The addition of the tincture of tolu is necessary here, owing to the
extraordinary volatility of the delightful odor of mignonette, which is
lessened by the addition of tincture of tolu.

ESSENCE OR EXTRACT OF ROSE (EXTRAITS DE ROSE).

In commerce several sorts of essence or extract of rose are
distinguished; only the cheaper grades are made by direct solution of
the oil of rose in alcohol, the better grades are prepared only from
pomades. As the rose is the noblest of flowers, so are these odors the
most magnificent thus far produced by the art of perfumery, since they
are approached in delicacy and fragrance only by the genuine extracts
of orange flower and violet. The so-called rose waters (eaux de rose)
are best obtained by distillation of fresh or salted rose leaves with
water. The preceding formulæ will show that both extract of rose and
rose water form important constituents of many compound essences, hence
these materials require special attention. In the following pages
we enumerate only those formulæ which are acknowledged as the best
and furnish the finest product. As rose water likewise belongs among
the rose odors we give directions for its preparation, and observe
in passing that the precautions required in the manufacture of this
one apply also to all aromatic waters (eaux aromatisées). The first
essential to the production of a fine aromatic water is the employment
of the freshest possible flowers; when kept in stock, chemical changes
occur in the leaves which affect also the aromatic constituents and
lead to a deterioration of the fragrance. Hence we urgently recommend
to distil the freshly gathered flowers as soon as possible, even if the
quantity on hand be small. Should this not be feasible, it is advisable
to press the flowers immediately after gathering in stone-ware pots and
to pour over them a saturated solution of table salt. A concentrated
saline solution prevents decomposition by the abstraction of water; and
thus larger quantities of flowers may be gathered and distilled with
the salt solution. The majority of aromatic waters are prepared in this
way, for instance, rose, jasmine, lilac, and others. They enter less
into handkerchief perfumes than into various mouth and other washes,
and cosmetics in general.

ROSE WATER (EAU DE ROSE TRIPLE).

Rose leaves 4 lb.
Water 20 pints.

Mix them, and by means of steam, distil 10 pints.

The rose leaves are, of course, preferably to be used while fresh.
If they are to be preserved for future use, they should be packed in
stone-ware jars, and covered with a solution of common salt. This
is poured off before distillation, but used over again for the same
purpose.

EXTRACT OF ROSE (EXTRAIT DE ROSES TRIPLE).

Rose pomade 8 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

ESSENCE OF [OIL OF] ROSE (ESPRIT DE ROSES TRIPLE).

Oil of rose 3½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This essence is not so good as the extract.

EXTRACT OF CHINA ROSES (ESSENCE DE ROSES JAUNES).

Essence of rose (triple) 2 qts.
Tincture of tonka ½ pint.
Extract of tuberose 2 qts.
Extract of verbena ½ pint.

EXTRACT OF SWEET-BRIER (WILD ROSE) (EXTRAIT D’EGLANTINE).

Extract of cassie, from pomade 44 fl. oz.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 44 fl. oz.
Extract of rose, from pomade 2½ qts.
Essence of rose (triple) 44 fl. oz.
Oil of lemon grass ¼ oz.
Oil of neroli ¼ oz.

EXTRACT OF MOSS-ROSE (EXTRAIT DE ROSES MOUSSEUSES).

Extract of rose, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 1 qt.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Tincture of ambergris 1 pint.
Tincture of musk ½ lb.

EXTRACT OF TEA-ROSE (EXTRAIT DE ROSA THÉA).

Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of geranium, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade ½ pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.
Tincture of santal ½ pint.
Tincture of orris root ½ pint.

EXTRACT OF WHITE ROSE (ESSENCE DE ROSES BLANCHES).

Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of jasmine, from pomade 1 pint.
Extract of violet, from pomade 1 qt.
Essence of patchouly ½ pint.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 qt.

EXTRACT OF TWIN-ROSES (ESSENCE DE ROSES JUMELLES).

Extract of rose, from pomade 5 qts.
Oil of rose 1¾ oz.

EXTRACT OF SANTAL (EXTRAIT DE SANTAL).

Tincture of santal 3½ oz.
Essence of rose (triple) 1 pint.
Alcohol 9 pints.

TINCTURE OF STORAX (ESSENCE DE STYRAX).

Storax 10½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

Though this tincture has a pleasant odor, it is not ordinarily used by
itself, but for fixing other odors.

TINCTURE OF TOLU (EXTRAIT DE BAUME DE TOLOU).

Tolu balsam 10½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

The remark made under tincture of storax applies also to this.

TINCTURE OF TONKA (EXTRAIT DE TONKA).

Tonka beans, crushed 21 oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF TUBEROSE (EXTRAIT DE TUBEROSE).

Tuberose pomade 8-10 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.
Tincture of storax 10 fl. oz.

TINCTURE OF VANILLA (EXTRAIT DE VANILLE).

Vanilla, sliced ½ lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF VIOLET (EXTRAIT DE VIOLETTE).

Violet pomade 6-7 lb.
Extract of cassie 6½ fl. oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This extract is very expensive; a good imitation is made as follows:

Extract of cassie, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 1 qt.
Tincture of orris root 1 qt.
Oil of bitter almond 15 grains.

TINCTURE OF ORRIS ROOT (EXTRAIT D’IRIS).

Orris root, powdered 6-7 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This tincture is sold as a very cheap violet perfume, but it has also
considerable value to perfumery in general, owing to its fixing power.

EXTRACT OF VERBENA (EXTRAIT DE VERVEINE).

True oil of verbena is rather expensive. Hence artificial compositions
are employed under the name of verbena which resemble the true odor,
though not exactly like it.

EXTRACT OF VERBENA A.

Oil of lemon grass 75 grains.
Oil of lemon 14 oz.
Oil of orange peel 3½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

This extract is cheap and is used immediately as a perfume. The
extract usually sold under the French name Extrait de verveine is more
expensive and far superior:

EXTRACT OF VERBENA B.

Extract of orange flower, from pomade 30 fl. oz.
Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade ⅓ oz.
Oil of citron zeste ½ oz.
Oil of lemon grass ¾ oz.
Oil of lemon peel 9 oz.
Oil of orange peel 4½ oz.
Alcohol 4⅔ pints.

As already explained, if hand-pressed oil of lemon (made by the écuelle
process) is available, then the “oil of citron zeste” (which is _this_
particular kind of oil) and the “oil of lemon” may be simply added
together; that is, 9½ oz. of oil of lemon are used.

EXTRACT OF VOLCAMERIA (EXTRAIT DE VOLCAMERIA).

This extract is no more derived from the fragrant blossom whose name
it bears than are those of the lily, pink, and others met with in
commerce. It is prepared according to the following formula:

Extract of jasmine, from pomade 1 pint.
Extract of rose, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of tuberose, from pomade 2 qts.
Extract of violet, from pomade 2 qts.
Tincture of musk. ½ pint.

ESSENCE OF VETIVER (EXTRAIT DE VÉTIVER).

Oil of vetiver 2½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

TINCTURE OF OLIBANUM (EXTRAIT D’OLIBAN, EXTRAIT D’ENCENS).

Olibanum 1 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

EXTRACT OF WINTERGREEN (EXTRAIT DE GAULTHÉRIE).

This essence is more commonly sold under the English than the French
name. Its composition is the following:

Tincture of ambergris 1 pint.
Extract of cassie 1 qt.
Essence of lavender 1 pint.
Extract of orange flower, from pomade 1 qt.
Extract of rose, from pomade 2 qts.
Tincture of vanilla. 1 pint.
Essence of vetiver 1 pint.

TINCTURE OF CIVET (EXTRAIT DE CIVETTE).

Civet. 1—1½ oz.
Orris root 1—1½ oz.
Alcohol 5 qts.

Tincture of civet is exceedingly lasting and is generally employed for
fixing other odors. As to the quantity required to fix perfumes in
general, we may state that it varies with the nature of the odor. As a
rule, about one-sixteenth part of tincture of civet suffices for even
the most volatile perfumes.

TINCTURE OF CINNAMON (EXTRAIT DE CANELLE).

Cinnamon 1 lb.
Alcohol 5 qts.

Owing to the yellow color left upon handkerchiefs by perfumes prepared
with this extract, it can be used only for common goods, but it is more
frequently employed for scenting soaps.

According to the purposes for which they are intended, the various
articles of perfumery may be divided into several groups. They are:

TRUE PERFUMES.

A. _Liquid._—Alcoholic handkerchief perfumes. Among these are the
so-called extracts, bouquets, and waters. Ammoniacal and acid perfumes:
aromatic vinegars and volatile ammoniacal salts.

B. _Dry._—Sachet powders, fumigating pastils and powders.

PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE SKIN.

Emulsions, crêmes, perfumed soaps, toilet waters, nail powders.

PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE HAIR.

Hair oils, pomades, hair washes.


PREPARATIONS FOR THE CARE OF THE MOUTH.

Tooth powders, mouth washes.

COSMETICS.

Paints, powders, hair dyes, depilatories, etc.

In connection with the description of these different articles some
remarks will be made about the colors employed in perfumery and about
the utensils used with the cosmetics, such as combs, brushes, sponges,
etc.

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Moxibustion

Traditional Chinese Medicine is a medical system that incorporates numerous methods for treating disease and illness. One of the tools found in the toolbox of the TCM practitioner is known as moxibustion.

Moxibustion is a technique that involves the burning of mugwort, known as moxa, which is an herb that facilitates healing. The purpose of moxibustion is to stimulate the flow of Qi (pronounced “chee”), strengthen the blood and maintain general health. Qi is translated as life energy. There are two types of moxibustion, direct and indirect. Direct moxibustion uses moxa shaped into a small cone and is placed on top of an acupuncture point and burned. This type of moxibustion has two subcategories, scarring and non-scarring. Scarring moxa burns until it distinguishes on its own. This may lead to localized scarring and blisters. Non-scarring moxa allows for the moxa to be placed on the acupuncture point, lit, extinguished and removed before it burns the skin.

Non-scarring moxibustion creates a pleasant heating sensation that penetrates deeply into the skin, but does not create a scar or any pain. Indirect moxibustion is the more popular of the forms. In indirect moxibustion, a practitioner lights one end of a stick of moxa and holds it close to the acupuncture point for several minutes until the area turns red.

Moxibustion is used to help people with cold or stagnant conditions. Burning moxa is believed to expel cold and warm the energetic meridians, which creates the smooth flow of Qi and blood. Moxibustion also supports the yang energy, which strengthens and increases the original Qi. Moxibustion can be used to treat many conditions including back pain, muscle stiffness, headaches, tendonitis, arthritis, digestive disorders, anxiety, menstrual cramps, irregular periods and infertility. Moxibustion is not recommended for diabetic patients, since they have decreased sensitivity to pain and compromised circulation.

Moxibustion is very effectively used in patients that have a cold constitution. Many chronic conditions, even the ones that manifest as heat conditions, can have chronic cold as the underlying situation. A cold constitution is triggered or aggravated by over cooling the body systems. Because of technological advances, our bodies are exposed to cold at a much higher rate than in the past. Things like refrigeration, air-conditioning, iced beverages and even ice cream have created a society of people with cold constitutions. Also many pharmaceutical drugs including over-the-counter pain medications are known to decrease body temperature. Large consumption of fruits and raw vegetables and ongoing mental and emotional stress can also create cold constitutions. Therefore using moxibustion is frequently warranted in the treatment of many illnesses and diseases.

Moxibustion on the acupuncture point Stomach 36 also has the function of preventing diseases and maintaining health. In ancient China, this technique was known as reverse moxibustion. Even if a person is quite healthy, regular moxibustion on this point can invigorate healthy Qi and strengthen the immune system, thus increasing longevity. Perhaps this is why the point has been nicknamed the “longevity point”.

As with acupuncture, only a licensed practitioner should be called upon for treatments such as moxibustion. If you believe that moxibustion may be helpful with your medical conditions, be sure to discuss it with your acupuncturist.

Everyone has heard of acupuncture these days, but a lot of people still don’t know about moxa (or moxibustion) – A powerful additional tool in the acupuncturist’s toolbox.




Moxibustion is the technical name for the burning of the herb called moxa (Chinese mugwort) to provide heat and provide an alternative way of stimulating acupoints, channels or areas of the body.

The moxa itself is a light, downy substance, which can be used either loose or in a number of prepared forms. The most well known way of using it is is called ‘warming needle’, where a tightly squeezed pile of moxa, or a ready-made piece of compressed moxa, is placed on the end of a needle and lit (see picture). As it burns down, the needle warms up, and transmits heat into the body.

This stimulates the acupoint in two ways – by needling and by heat, and this will have a different effect to needling alone. In a way, the application of heat to an acupoint is a way of asking it to do something slightly different to what it does when needled.

Specifically, moxa helps to heat the body up, and strengthen both Qi and Yang. It help in certain cases of stagnation, as the Heat helps to get things moving. For instance, it can sometimes be very effective in the treatment of osteo-arthritis, especially in cases where the pain is worse in cold weather.

There are lots of other ways to use moxa, too. It can be applied straight onto the body (direct moxa) or placed on top of some kind of insulating material, which is then placed on the body (indirect moxa) – traditionally a slice of fresh ginger was used, to enhance the Moxa’s heating effect.

A moxa stick, something like a cigar, can be used on a point, channel or any part of the body – one end is lit and then it is held over the relevant area. It provides a surprising amount of heat, which really penetrates deeply inside.

The one downside with moxa is the big plumes of smoke that it gives off. It makes for good photos, but soon fills a room. Plus, the smell is strong, and although not unpleasant, is surprisingly similar to marijuana – this can occasionally give an uninitiated passer-by quite the wrong idea of what’s going on inside the acupuncture clinic!

So, to avoid getting smoked out, many acupuncturists use smokeless moxa, a kind of moxa infused charcoal, which can be used in all the same ways as the traditional herb.

Moxa is also a valuable part of the ‘Yang Sheng‘ tradition of strengthening and bolstering overall health and well-being. Moxa treatments carried out regularly, or at certain times of year, help to strengthen Qi and prevent disease. They are especially beneficial just before or during Winter, or at times of great stress or heightened demand on the body and mind, and they become more and more useful the older you get. Many of the classic texts recommend a yearly moxa session to keep energy strong, and old age at bay.

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在薄凉的人世间守望友谊

2017-05-22 章菡 读书论道

从青年到中年,蓦然发现,有多少所谓的朋友,走着走着就散了,友谊的原野大多时候总归荒凉。有句话,人生有一知己足矣,足以道尽了生命的孤独与友谊的弥足珍贵。那么何为友谊?如何守望得这一世的友谊?

关于友谊,纪伯伦如是说:“不要对你们的友谊别有企图,除了追寻心灵的深耕外”。

邀请你的朋友共享生命,成全这一世的彼此懂得和灵魂成长,而不是另有企图。在古汉语里,“朋”字更富有深意,两个人格如月华之高洁的人为伴则为“朋”,在中国文化里更有“君子之交淡如水”的说法,君子的交往不掺和任何的功利和目的性,只是在这一世的情缘里,遇见、懂得、彼此拥抱、灵魂相伴,互为成全。既然是灵魂层面的契合,当然是少之又少,更谓是弥足珍贵。当看破蝇营狗苟的人世繁华,也就懂了伯牙绝弦的悲怆和决绝,更能体会到《高山流水》背后的惋叹和生命之凄楚。知音十足难觅。更为可悲的是,世人却在一场以友谊为幌子的实用性和功利性的人间游戏里乐此不疲,透支人格,甚至泯灭人性,岂不可悲可叹。

知音难觅,如若今生有缘,请就以慈悲的胸怀善待友谊,并切忌苛责友谊。

关于友谊,纪伯伦同样说过“友谊是你播撒爱和感恩的种子而收获的天地。”真正的友谊,没有斤斤计较,更没有彼此利用,首要的是爱和感恩。而爱和感恩的至高境界是慈悲,所谓的慈悲,以佛法开示,就是无我相、人相、众生相、兽者相,天人合一,众生归一,不分彼此。在友谊的天地里,只有做到爱和慈悲,友谊的个体超越小我,灵魂相知相惜,方得恒久。

其次,以宽容人性的方式拥抱友谊,不苛责友谊。著名作家周国平曾说,从灵魂层面,每个人都是孤儿。既然是孤儿,一是,每个人都有以自我为中心的生命根性;其次,每个灵魂都需要温暖,穷其一生寻找归宿。如果能体悟到生命的这般层面,对于人性某种程度的自私、狭隘,甚至趋利性,都是可以接纳的,所以,在友谊的世界里,苛责友谊是友谊的最大杀手。在这一点上,最好是灵魂相伴成长,生命彼此成全,在友谊相伴的道路上遇到每一个最好的自己,当然是人生至幸。

如果每一个灵魂都是孤儿,那就试着超越人性的狭隘,以友谊的名义奉献你的悲悯和慈悲吧;在薄凉的人世间守望友谊,奉献你最好的东西给你的朋友,同享喜悦,共历一世繁华,让友谊之花在生命的原野里绽放,让每一个生命都不再孤独。

(END)

原文地址 http://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/F7n1uqsn6MWuq9urE_HISA

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THE SEEN AND THE UNSEEN

Ha! yon burst of crystal splendor,
Sunlight, starlight, blent in one;
Starlight set in arctic azure,
Sunlight from the burning zone!
Gold and silver, gems and marble,
All creation’s jewelry;
Earth’s uncovered waste of riches,
Treasures of the ancient sea.
Heir of glory,
What is that to thee and me?

Iris and Aurora braided–
How the woven colors shine!
Snow-gleams from an Alpine summit.
Torch-light from a spar-roofed mine.
Like Arabia’s matchless palace,
Child of magic’s strong decree,
One vast globe of living sapphire,
Floor, walls, columns, canopy.
Heir of glory,
What is that to thee and me?

Forms of beauty, shapes of wonder,
Trophies of triumphant toil;
Never Athens, Rome, Palmyra,
Gazed on such a costly spoil.
Dazzling the bewildered vision,
More than princely pomp we see:
What the blaze of the Alhambra,
Dome of emerald, to thee?
Heir of glory,
What is that to thee and me?

Farthest cities pour their riches,
Farthest empires muster here,
Art her jubilee proclaiming
To the nations far and near.
From the crowd in wonder gazing,
Science claims the prostrate knee;
This her temple, diamond-blazing,
Shrine of her idolatry.
Heir of glory,
What is that to thee and me?

Listen to her tale of wonder,
Of her plastic, potent spell;
‘Tis a big and braggart story,
Yet she tells it fair and well.
She the gifted, gay magician,
Mistress of earth, air, and sea;
This majestic apparition,
Offspring of her sorcery.
Heir of glory,
What is that to thee and me?

What to that for which we’re waiting
Is this glittering earthly toy?
Heavenly glory, holy splendor,
Sum of grandeur, sum of joy.
Not the gems that time can tarnish,
Not the hues that dim and die,
Not the glow that cheats the lover,
Shaded with mortality.
Heir of glory,
That shall be for thee and me!

Not the light that leaves us darker,
Nor the gleams that come and go,
Not the mirth whose end is madness,
Not the joy whose fruit is woe;
Not the notes that die at sunset,
Not the fashion of a day;
But the everlasting beauty,
And the endless melody.
Heir of glory,
That shall be for thee and me!

City of the pearl-bright portal;
City of the jasper wall;
City of the golden pavement;
Seat of endless festival.
City of Jehovah, Salem,
City of eternity,
To thy bridal-hall of gladness,
From this prison would I flee.
Heir of glory,
That shall be for thee and me!

Ah! with such strange spells around me,
Fairest of what earth calls fair,
How I need thy fairer image,
To undo the syren snare?
Lest the subtle serpent-tempter
Lure me with his radiant lie;
As if sin were sin no longer,
Life were no more vanity.
Heir of glory,
What is that to thee and me?

Yes, I need _thee_, heavenly city,
My low spirit to upbear;
Yes, I need thee–earth’s enchantments
So beguile me with their glare.
Let me see thee, then these fetters
Break asunder; I am free;
Then this pomp no longer chains me;
Faith has won the victory.
Heir of glory,
That shall be for thee and me?

Soon where earthly beauty blinds not,
No excess of brilliance palls,
Salem, city of the holy,
We shall be within thy walls!
There, beside you crystal river,
There, beneath life’s wondrous tree,
There, with naught to cloud or sever–
Ever with the Lamb to be!
Heir of glory,
That shall be for thee and me!

私家车999梦茹

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Everyone is talking about the scheming, but why is it better to be a good man?

Two weeks ago with a workplace on the development of these two years is very smooth girlfriend drink tea, listen to her evaluation of a background in the company very Niubi high:
 
“His most admirable place is to never hesitate to share his resources with people, even with his eight – beaten department, as if he had given himself a helpful person.
 
“If you look carefully, you will find that the workplace can go to the last many people, are so. Very capable, very powerful, but beingided.
 
Well, I am totally agreeing about this point of view.
 
So today, we come to talk about this sounds like a very fashionable topic Well: Why do everyone study the palace of the era, we should instead do a good person is being

01

Say a little story first.
 
I have a girlfriend to do entertainment journalists, people are beautiful, capable. Every time she had a job with her, she was very helpful to me.
 
I have been complacent, probably because I put my own skills like it.
 
Until many years later, she inadvertently said: “Do you remember our first meeting? Is a brand conference, your seat just next to me. I was on hand with an English material needed someone to help me I heard that you are graduating from foreign language university, attend to us is the first time to meet, sick anxious to ask the doctor, ask you can help busy.
 
“I did not expect you actually agreed! Help me listen to all the English material! I was thinking, my God, how could there be such a good girl, I must be better to her later!
 
Uh, I really do not remember, touch the head.
 
For me, this is a very trivial matter. First of all, anyway, I was very empty that day; Second, a university era of high-level interpretation of the English translation of the certificate, the opportunity to re-exercise about the old industry, in fact, very happy.
 
But it brought me a very long friendship.

Many years later look back, in fact, we established in the workplace of those relationships, mostly by this little thing little by little connected.
 
When young, I have been keen to participate in various industry salons and parties, in order to accumulate social resources as soon as possible. But soon I found that when you and the other status is not equal, each other in the work can not form a mutually beneficial relationship, even for hundreds of business cards, but also save a bunch of phone numbers only.
 
This social, cost is very low, is the so-called invalid social.
 
And later gradually realized, or work colleagues and partners to help you up to help.
 
Are met in the micro-time, are trying to climb the young people. Today, you are on my rivers and lakes emergency, tomorrow I have the opportunity to reciprocate … … assume that each other are the case of Kaopu, unknowingly, the trust was so established.
 
Wait a few years later, everyone in their respective areas gradually gain a firm foothold (believe me, Kaopu people usually do not mix too bad), you suddenly become everyone’s eyes, very resourceful people.
 
Moreover, because it is based on the trust between people to establish a cooperative relationship, subject to external conditions are very small. No matter where you go, these people and relationships, most of them will follow you.
 
So, the workplace rules one: young, you are not qualified to talk about “resources” word. You can do is to continue to do one thing and a small thing to accumulate industry reputation.

This is a long process, so you have to be a good guy.

▲ Oleg Oprisco photography works
 
02

On the other hand, if the young work in the big platform, one thing must be very, very careful, that is, do not rely on the platform temper up.
 
I have a team of students under the team has a request: no matter when and where to stay polite. Can have a strong position, but be sure to maintain a moderate attitude.
 
Very simple, strong is the platform, not your own. One day when you leave, the platform resources you do not take, bad temper is going to follow you.
 
Just say a little thing: when I was young, around those who are very angry on the public at every turn on the shouting of the peer, now do not know where to go to the world.
 
Besides, even if your platform has not changed, but also could not stand the year you were neglected people feng shui turn ah.
 
I have a broker friend, early years when the line, with a second-line female star notice. There is a time when the actress publicity period, she called a magazine editor, asked if there is a chance on the cover.
 
There is a blunt way to say that we have our own star channel. And then have not had time to wait for what she said, hung up the phone directly.
 
She was very angry for this thing, with a bunch of friends complained for a long time.
 
Later, after a few years, her career developed very well, began with a large line of coffee. At this time, replaced by that editor came to ask her, there is no chance to about her star on the cover.
 
She asked: Do not you have your own star channel?
 
So this is a “landscape meet” story.
 
Workplace rules two: “warning language” there are four words, “the potential can not be done, blessing can not enjoy, cheap can not be exhausted, smart can not be exhausted.

Simple summary, that is, more spring breeze, the more low-key, humble.

03

In fact, in any field of workplace, to do a spring breeze blowing good people, are more difficult than the wicked. Or you said, why no matter boys and girls, all of Lin Chi-ling’s love business newspaper to a high degree of evaluation?
 
Interestingly, my first job due to the nature of the relationship, there are plenty of opportunities to work with brokers and women stars.
 
From them, you can learn a simple and practical tips: when you and the other ideas are inconsistent, how politely adhere to their views, while not harming anyone’s face.
 
I call it the “three-stage communication law”.
 



Assuming you have just finished large, you want to use the photo A cover, she is more like the photo B:
 
“This photo is good for you, and today ‘s photographers, stylists and clothes are all great.” (To praise the other side, let the other heart feel comfortable.
 
“Unfortunately, my right half of the face is not the left side of the face look good, although this pose is very vivid, but my face will not be familiar with the point of view of the attractive.” (And then selfishly half a step, you are right, The problem.)
 
“So we have the possibility of picking another goes on? If you think pose is not in front of that good, maybe you can try to make a photo to do such a cut?” (Finally put forward their own opinions, and with a solution.)
 
In the first half of my career career, usually met most of the day, are brokers, brand market, public relations people who fine fine people. You will find to deal with them, this three-paragraph communication method is really good use.
 
Do not need to say anything more, the other side immediately understand where your bottom line. Each step back, to reach an agreement, but also happy to work together later.

But then, when I switched to a portal, because the nature of the work requires a lot of deal with the wedding small business, I suddenly found that this way of communication does not work.
 
You left on the face, we will not hesitate to come to step on your bottom line where you look. The beginning will really have culture shock, and later found that this is for the boss to work and do their own business two different ways of thinking.
 
Do businessmen who do small business, earn and spend every penny is their own money, the pursuit of maximum benefit is the primary premise. As long as there is a little bit of squeeze the space, they will want to be an inch to try.
 
See it is also easy to understand: the rejection of the time on the polite, clearly refused to clear. Businessmen do not have glass heart, the more no bending around the modifier, but they are the better way to communicate.
 
Do not have to worry about will hurt each other’s face. As long as clear the rules of the game, the next opportunity to cooperate, they will be happy to come to you.
 
So is the other layer of the essence of being explained, not to let you when the principle of the workplace is not good, everyone can come to step on the foot; but the so-called “empathy”: can put themselves from the other point of view, Think about why he wants to do it
 
Therefore, the workplace rules three: whether it is to communicate with people or find someone to cooperate, first stand in each other’s position to help him think about where the interests of the point.

This is not to show weakness, but because both sides can be profitable to be able to long and happy to go.

04

Honestly do the first three points, plus a certain number of years of work experience accumulation, unknowingly, you will suddenly find:
 
Now the problem is not no resources!
 
Is to know too many people, a person only 24 hours a day, but to maintain the basic ah!
 
So why do I have been encouraging everyone to do a mentality open people, a lot of share resources to their colleagues and subordinates? Because if you do not share, those sleeping resources on the waste ah.
 
Sleeping resources is equal to no resources (knock blackboard, graded ing).
 
On the first day of the company, I have told the kids on the team that from today you will get all the industry resources that I have accumulated over the years. Take a good catch and keep it, after a year or two, you will find yourself having a chance to grow faster than many peers.
 
Then a little friend secretly told me: “At first we all think you are lying, but later found, as if you are really!
 
Some people may ask: to share out, not afraid of resources were taken away, he was replaced?
 
My point of view is this: If you only forward a WeChat card, or transfer a project, you can be pry the relationship, is not your own relationship. That’s just a contact.
 
I ask you dead clutching a contact, with the young to change a lot of business cards do not have, what is the difference? (This year to find someone is not easy, who can not contact who ah, microblogging, WeChat, friends circle … …)
 
The best way to win the win, I share the resources I can not use for you, you can play here 100% or even 200% of the role, and then point to the surface, maybe here I can find new opportunities for cooperation.
 
Saying that I and “high-heeled 73 hours,” the boss Zhao Ruohong, then it is because it is so familiar with the ah!
 
The first cooperation, she invited me to Han Han to do the activities of the judges.
 
The second cooperation, her customer activities with the stars of the filming of the filming period, I asked her to help keep the flight schedule. (Ah, the day with the guests who played opponents play, looks like Tony Leung … …)
 
These two co-operation are purely cooperative or private help, no doping a little bit of money.
 
Purely I see you pleasing to the eye and Kaopu, willing to cooperate with you, plus a little bit “since you help open the head must be responsible in the end,” the loyalty. (Who said that the workplace does not need loyalty? Then knock on a small blackboard.)
 
Basically, such cooperation to one or two, you can rise to the intersection of life and death of the friendship. Our common friend wears a big sign.
 
Workplace life and death of the turn, with the office to help the party is very low to do this group does not matter. But said that from then on our trust, to the core of social resources can share the relationship.

 
Simply put it, that is, to the extent of the exchange can be lovers circle.
 
I know you all the buddies, you know all my girlfriends, in view of all of us are Kaopu people, our buddies and most of the girlfriends are also mixed well. (Or can not have a common topic can do friends for more than 10 years).
 
Soon, you will find that with you to the exchange of friends can be exchanged for a few friends, you want to do some casual or where to find someone, you can quickly reach the field that Get the students.
 
Very simple, you share, is their past career career more than ten years accumulated and screened out of social relations ah!
 
For me this is actually very house of students, this method is the most efficient, the highest quality social model.
 
Than you go to participate in 1000 parties, for 10,000 business cards, are useful.
  
05

Last but not the least, let’s go back to the top of the article.
 
Why do I hate the palace culture?
 
First, the world changes so fast, if you do every thing before you have to figure out whether there is any interest, is not clear (and as previously said, if it is always a side of the cheap side of the relationship, Difficult to long).
 
It is possible that you forget for a long time, but finally made a loss trading.
 
Second, if you have not forgotten a child learned physics class, should know that at any time there is a force and reaction force exists at the same time.
 
Do not think the other side looks less than you can just hurt, and then weak opponents, there will be resistance to the power. Life to save RP this sentence, a lot of time really is not just talk about it.
 
So, it is better to be a good person to maintain integrity and open mind.
 
Tell true, both to protect themselves and the interests of the team, but also let people around the spring, can do this, and perseverance to do this, not easy.
 
Even my own are still trying to practice the process of it Are you interested in having a challenge to see?

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